Flowers White Or Nearly So

A. Corolla Of Several Similar Petals Or Petal-Like Sepals

1,2,3

1. Petals normally 3

Great White Trillium. Trillium grandiflorum.

Snowy Trillium. Earliest Trillium; blooms in March; a Western and Southwestern species. Trillium nivale.

Painted Trillium. Petals white, striped with red. Trillium undulatum.

Golden Seal. Petal-like sepals falling as the flower opens. Hydrastis Canadensis.

2. Petals normally 4. Corolla cruciform, or petals recurved

White Cardamine. Flowers white. Cardamine rhomboidea.

Cuckoo-Flower. Flowers white or purplish. Cardamine pra-tensis.

Two-Leaved Dentaria. Flowers white or pale purple. Dentaria diphylla.

Cut-Leaved Dentaria. Flowers white or pale purple. Dentaria laciniata.

Whitlow-Grass. Small, insignificant. Draba verna.

Lyre-Leaved Cress. The basal leaves only are lyre-shaped. Arabis lyrata.

Shepherd's-Purse. Flowers very small at the top of the stem; plant easily known by heart-shaped pod. Capsella bursa-pastoris.

Flower-of-May. Low plant, with two shining leaves; usually growing in beds; flowers in a crowded terminal raceme, petals recurved. Maianthemum Canadense.

3. Petals or petal-like sepals normally 5. Corolla saucer-like or flat

Hepatica. White, also pink, blue, lavender; frequently more than five petal-like sepals. Two species, distinguished by the shape of leaf. Hepatica. Anemone. White, delicately tinted with pink outside. Anemone nemorosa, var. quinquefolia. Meadow Rue Anemone. White, sometimes tinted with pink; often more than five petal-like sepals. Syndesmon thalictroides. Isopyrum. Usually five petal-like sepals. Isopyrum biternatum. White Baneberry. Petals sometimes fewer than five; drop quickly. Actaa alba. Mitella. Petals finely cut. Mitella diphylla. Tiarella. Flowers in a crowded raceme. Tiarella cordifolia. Early Saxifrage. Flowers in loose, flattish clusters. Saxifraga

Virginiensis. Chickweed. Petals deeply cut. Stellaria media. Strawberries. Two species; flowers very like those of cultivated Strawberries. Fragaria. Wild Sarsaparilla. White flowers in an umbel. Aralia nudicaulis. Dwarf Ginseng. Flowers in an umbel-like head. Panax trifolium. Harbinger-of-Spring. Very early; flowers in small umbels.

Erigenia bulbosa. Downy Sweet Cicely. Flowers minute, small clusters at top of stem. Washingtonia claytoni. Osmorrhiza brevistylis.

B. Corolla Irregular; Petals Dissimilar. 1,2,3,4

1. Violet-shape; petals 5

Sweet White Violet. Found in two forms. Viola blanda. Lance-Leaved Violet. Viola lanceolata. Primrose-Leaved Violet. Viola primulafolia. Cream Violet. Cream, with dark stripes. Viola striata. Canada Violet. White often flushed with blue. Viola Canadensis.

2. Modified pea-shape; petals 5

White Clover. White, often pinkish. Trifolium repens. Carolina Vetch. White with bluish keel. Vicia Caroliniana.

3. Heart-shape; petals 4, in two pairs

Dutchman's-Breeches. White, tipped with pale yellow; spurs wide apart. Dicentra cucullaria. Squirrel-Corn. White, tipped with pale pink; spurs rounded.

Dicentra Canadensis.

4. Petals, or perianth-segments, normally 6 or more

Smilicina. Flowers small, clustered at the top of a leafy stem. Vagnera racemosa.

Three-Leaved Solomon's-Seal. Three shining leaves; a flower-cluster at the top of the stem. Vagnera trifolia.

Bloodroot. Buds protected by enfolding leaf. Sanguinaria Canadensis.

Twinleaf. Blossom not unlike that of Bloodroot; leaves cut into two similar parts. Jeffersonia diphylla.

Mandrake. Flower always at the fork of two terminal leaves, nodding. Podophyllum peltatnm.

C. Corolla Of Parts Grown Together, Making One Piece

1,2, 3

1. Salver-shape; border 4 or 5-lobed

Phlox. Normally pink; sometimes white. Phlox divaricata. Bluets. Normally blue; sometimes white. Houstonia coerulea.

2. Rotate, or short-tubed corolla

Goose-Grass. Minute, 4-lobed. Stems cling because of retrorse bristles. Galium aperine. Star-Flower. Star-shape, usually 5 to 7-lobed; white, rarely pinkish. Trientalis Americana. Buckbean. Plant of the bogs; 5-lobed; segments bearded.

Menyanthes trifoliata.

3. Composite head

Dwarf Everlasting. Flowers either pistillate or staminate. Heads very hairy. Antennaria plantaginifolia.

Flowers Yellow Or Yellowish Green

A. Corolla Of Several Similar Petals, 1, 2, 3

1. Petals normally 4

Celandine. Corolla of buttercup type. Chelidonium majus. Yellow Rocket. Corolla cruciform. Barbarea vulgaris.

2. Petals normally 5. Corolla saucer-like, flat, or petals incurved

Early Buttercup. Corolla saucer-like. Ranunculus fascicularis. Swamp-Buttercup. Corolla saucer-like. Ranunculus septentrionalis. Bulbous Buttercup. Corolla saucer-like. Ranunculus bulbosus. Small-Flowered Buttercup. Corolla of five, small, pointed petals. Ranunculus abortivus. Marsh-Marigold. Marsh plant; flowers brilliant yellow.

Caltha palustris. Potentilla. Flowers look like yellow strawberry blossoms.

Potentilla Canadensis. Wood-Sorrel. Foliage acid to the taste. Oxalis stricta. Golden Meadow-Parsnip. Flowers small, borne in an umbel; petals incurved. Zizia aurea. Sanicle. Coarse plant with small flowers. Sanicula Marylandica.

3. Petals, or perianth-segments, normally 6. Corolla lily-like or star-like

Large-Flowered Bellwort. Pale yellow. Uvularia grandiflora. Perfoliate Bellwort. Pale yellow. Uvularia perfoliata. Sessile-Leaved Bellwort. Pale yellow. Uvularia sessilifolia. Adder's-Tongue. Bright or tawny yellow; there is a white species. Erythronium. Yellow Clintonia. Greenish yellow. Clintonia borealis. Indian Cucumber-Root. Greenish yellow; stem has two whorls of leaves. Medeola Virginiana. Disporum. Yellowish green, at first lily-like, later star-like.

Disporum lanuginosum.

B. Corolla Irregular; Petals Dissimilar, 1, 2

1. Violet-shape; petals 5

Downy Yellow Violet. Viola pubeseens. Smooth Yellow Violet. Viola scabruscula. Halberd-Leaved Violet. Viola hastata. Round-Leaved Violet. Viola rotundifolia.

2. Orchid-shape; petals 3, one a pouch Yellow Lady's-Slipper. Cypripedium pubeseens.

C. Corolla Or Perianth Of Parts Grown Together, Making One Piece. 1, 2

1. Perianth slender bell-shape

Solomon's-Seal. Yellowish green, in pairs along a leafy stem. Polygonatum biflorum.

2. Composite heads

Dandelion. All florets strap-shaped; that is, ray-florets. Taraxacum dens-leonis.

Golden Ragwort. Disk of tubular florets; border of ray-florets. Senecio aureus.

Coltsfoot. Disk of tubular florets; ray-florets in several rows. Tussilago farfara.

Flowers Red, Red And Yellow, Brownish Red, Or Brownish Purple

A. Corolla Of Several Similar Petals Or Petal-Like Sepals

Wild Columbine. Red and yellow; petals trumpet-shaped, 5.

Aquilegia Canadensis. Ill-Scented Trillium. Madder-red; petals 3. Trillium erectum. Wild Ginger. Brownish purple; petal-like sepals, 3. Entire plant has the taste of ginger. Asarum Canadense. Red Sorrel. Greenish, red, or yellow; sepals 4 to 6, persistent.

Rumex acetosella.

B. Corolla Of Parts Grown Together, Making One Piece

Wood Betony. Red and yellow; corolla two-lipped. Pedicu-laris Canadensis.

Scarlet Painted-Cup. Upper leaves of stem more or less scarlet; corolla greenish yellow, two-lipped. Castilleja coccinea.

Flowers Pink, Pink And White, Pink-Purple

A. Corolla Of Several Similar Petals Or Petal-Like Sepals

1,2

1. Petals normally 4. Corolla cruciform Purple Cress. Cardamine rhomboidea, var. purpurea.

2. Petals normally 5. Corolla saucer-like.

Hepatica. White, pale pink, lavender, blue; petal-like sepals, 5, often more. Hepatica acutiloba and Hepatica triloba.

Wild Geranium. Pink-purple; petals veined. Geranium maculatum. Spring-Beauty. Pale pink with darker veins; flowers in a raceme. Claytonia Virginica.

B. Corolla Irregular; Petals Dissimilar. 1, 2

1. Modified pea-shape

Alsike Clover. Pink and white. Trifolium hybridum. Red Clover. Purple-pink. Trifolium pratense.

2. Orchid-shape

Moccasin-Flower. Pink, veined with darker lines. Cypripedium acaule. Showy Orchis. Pink and white. Galeorchis spectabilis.

C. Corolla Of Parts Grown Together, Making One Piece

1, 2,3

1. Corolla salver-shape; border 5-lobed

Phlox. Pink varying to white. Phlox divaricata. Moss-Pink. In cultivation. Phlox subulata.

Trailing Arbutus. Pink varying to white. Epigaa repens. Pyxie. Flowers pink or white. Pyxidanthera barbulata.

2. Corolla two-lipped Dead-Nettles. Flowers purplish or pink or white. Lamium.

3. Composite heads Fleabanes. Disks yellow; ray-florets many, pinkish. Erigeron.

Flowers Violet-Blue, Blue, Blue And White

A. Corolla Irregular; Petals Dissimilar

1. Violet-shape; petals 5

Common Blue Violet. Common stemless species. Viola cucullata. Bird's-Foot Violet. Leaves finely cut; flowers often of two colors. Viola pedata. Dog-Violet. An early form. Viola Labradorica. Long-Spurred Violet. Pale blue with long spurs. Viola ros~ trata.

B. Corolla Of Parts Grown Together, Making One Piece

Grape-Hyacinth. An escape from gardens. Muscari botryoides. Wild Hyacinth. Pale blue; segments almost separate. Quamasia hyacinthina. Bluebells. Deep blue, pink in bed. Mertensia Virginica. Greek Valerian. Blue, rarely white. Polemonium reptans. Water-Leaf. Pale blue or white; calyx with long white hairs.

Hydrophyllum Virginicum. Periwinkle. Blue, escaped from gardens. Vinca minor. Bluets. Pale blue varying to white. Houstonia coerulea. Speedwells. White-centred, pale blue, small flowers. Veronica. Collinsia. Two-lipped; upper lip usually white; lower lip blue.

Collinsia verna. Ground-Ivy. Two-lipped, bluish purple. Glecoma hederacea.

Plants Not Listed In Key

Skunk-Cabbage. With large, fleshy spathe. Spathyema foetida.

Golden-Club. Flowers yellow at the summit of the scape, the spathe becoming a mere bract. Orontiiim aquaticum.

Jack-in-the-Pulpit. Spathe green and purple, striped, curving over the top of the spadix. Arisama triphyllum.

Upright Smilax. Smilax ecirrhata.

Early Meadow-Rue. Dioecious; flowers green; the yellowish anthers of the staminate plant hanging on long filaments. Thalictrum dioicum.

Pink Corydalis. Flowers whitish; tips touched with yellow and pink; one short and rounded spur. Corydalis glauca.

Golden Corydalis. Flowers golden yellow with rounded spur. Corydalis aurea.

Blue Cohosh. Flowers greenish purple; petals 6. Caulophyl-lum thalictroides.

Shooting-Star. Flowers in an umbel; nodding, pointed, whitish, with a cone of stamens grown together. Dodecatheon meadia.

Bunchberry. Low plant with flowers resembling the Flowering Dogwood. Cornns Canadensis.

Cypress-Spurge. Flowers yellowish green; plant usually appearing in beds; stems very leafy. Euphorbia cyparissias.

Rib-Grass. One of the bad Plantain weeds. Plantago lanceo-lata.

Field Horsetail. Not a flowering plant; fertile stems appearing abundantly in early spring in sandy soil. Equisetum arvense.