1. Petals normally 3
Great White Trillium. Trillium grandiflorum.
Snowy Trillium. Earliest Trillium; blooms in March; a Western and Southwestern species. Trillium nivale.
Painted Trillium. Petals white, striped with red. Trillium undulatum.
Golden Seal. Petal-like sepals falling as the flower opens. Hydrastis Canadensis.
2. Petals normally 4. Corolla cruciform, or petals recurved
White Cardamine. Flowers white. Cardamine rhomboidea.
Cuckoo-Flower. Flowers white or purplish. Cardamine pra-tensis.
Cut-Leaved Dentaria. Flowers white or pale purple. Dentaria laciniata.
Whitlow-Grass. Small, insignificant. Draba verna.
Lyre-Leaved Cress. The basal leaves only are lyre-shaped. Arabis lyrata.
Shepherd's-Purse. Flowers very small at the top of the stem; plant easily known by heart-shaped pod. Capsella bursa-pastoris.
Flower-of-May. Low plant, with two shining leaves; usually growing in beds; flowers in a crowded terminal raceme, petals recurved. Maianthemum Canadense.
3. Petals or petal-like sepals normally 5. Corolla saucer-like or flat
Hepatica. White, also pink, blue, lavender; frequently more than five petal-like sepals. Two species, distinguished by the shape of leaf. Hepatica. Anemone. White, delicately tinted with pink outside. Anemone nemorosa, var. quinquefolia. Meadow Rue Anemone. White, sometimes tinted with pink; often more than five petal-like sepals. Syndesmon thalictroides. Isopyrum. Usually five petal-like sepals. Isopyrum biternatum. White Baneberry. Petals sometimes fewer than five; drop quickly. Actaa alba. Mitella. Petals finely cut. Mitella diphylla. Tiarella. Flowers in a crowded raceme. Tiarella cordifolia. Early Saxifrage. Flowers in loose, flattish clusters. Saxifraga
Virginiensis. Chickweed. Petals deeply cut. Stellaria media. Strawberries. Two species; flowers very like those of cultivated Strawberries. Fragaria. Wild Sarsaparilla. White flowers in an umbel. Aralia nudicaulis. Dwarf Ginseng. Flowers in an umbel-like head. Panax trifolium. Harbinger-of-Spring. Very early; flowers in small umbels.
Erigenia bulbosa. Downy Sweet Cicely. Flowers minute, small clusters at top of stem. Washingtonia claytoni. Osmorrhiza brevistylis.
1. Violet-shape; petals 5
Sweet White Violet. Found in two forms. Viola blanda. Lance-Leaved Violet. Viola lanceolata. Primrose-Leaved Violet. Viola primulafolia. Cream Violet. Cream, with dark stripes. Viola striata. Canada Violet. White often flushed with blue. Viola Canadensis.
2. Modified pea-shape; petals 5
3. Heart-shape; petals 4, in two pairs
4. Petals, or perianth-segments, normally 6 or more
Smilicina. Flowers small, clustered at the top of a leafy stem. Vagnera racemosa.
Three-Leaved Solomon's-Seal. Three shining leaves; a flower-cluster at the top of the stem. Vagnera trifolia.
Bloodroot. Buds protected by enfolding leaf. Sanguinaria Canadensis.
Twinleaf. Blossom not unlike that of Bloodroot; leaves cut into two similar parts. Jeffersonia diphylla.
Mandrake. Flower always at the fork of two terminal leaves, nodding. Podophyllum peltatnm.
1. Salver-shape; border 4 or 5-lobed
2. Rotate, or short-tubed corolla
Goose-Grass. Minute, 4-lobed. Stems cling because of retrorse bristles. Galium aperine. Star-Flower. Star-shape, usually 5 to 7-lobed; white, rarely pinkish. Trientalis Americana. Buckbean. Plant of the bogs; 5-lobed; segments bearded.
3. Composite head
Dwarf Everlasting. Flowers either pistillate or staminate. Heads very hairy. Antennaria plantaginifolia.
1. Petals normally 4
2. Petals normally 5. Corolla saucer-like, flat, or petals incurved
Early Buttercup. Corolla saucer-like. Ranunculus fascicularis. Swamp-Buttercup. Corolla saucer-like. Ranunculus septentrionalis. Bulbous Buttercup. Corolla saucer-like. Ranunculus bulbosus. Small-Flowered Buttercup. Corolla of five, small, pointed petals. Ranunculus abortivus. Marsh-Marigold. Marsh plant; flowers brilliant yellow.
Caltha palustris. Potentilla. Flowers look like yellow strawberry blossoms.
Potentilla Canadensis. Wood-Sorrel. Foliage acid to the taste. Oxalis stricta. Golden Meadow-Parsnip. Flowers small, borne in an umbel; petals incurved. Zizia aurea. Sanicle. Coarse plant with small flowers. Sanicula Marylandica.
3. Petals, or perianth-segments, normally 6. Corolla lily-like or star-like
Large-Flowered Bellwort. Pale yellow. Uvularia grandiflora. Perfoliate Bellwort. Pale yellow. Uvularia perfoliata. Sessile-Leaved Bellwort. Pale yellow. Uvularia sessilifolia. Adder's-Tongue. Bright or tawny yellow; there is a white species. Erythronium. Yellow Clintonia. Greenish yellow. Clintonia borealis. Indian Cucumber-Root. Greenish yellow; stem has two whorls of leaves. Medeola Virginiana. Disporum. Yellowish green, at first lily-like, later star-like.
1. Violet-shape; petals 5
2. Orchid-shape; petals 3, one a pouch Yellow Lady's-Slipper. Cypripedium pubeseens.
1. Perianth slender bell-shape
Solomon's-Seal. Yellowish green, in pairs along a leafy stem. Polygonatum biflorum.
2. Composite heads
Dandelion. All florets strap-shaped; that is, ray-florets. Taraxacum dens-leonis.
Golden Ragwort. Disk of tubular florets; border of ray-florets. Senecio aureus.
Coltsfoot. Disk of tubular florets; ray-florets in several rows. Tussilago farfara.
Wild Columbine. Red and yellow; petals trumpet-shaped, 5.
Aquilegia Canadensis. Ill-Scented Trillium. Madder-red; petals 3. Trillium erectum. Wild Ginger. Brownish purple; petal-like sepals, 3. Entire plant has the taste of ginger. Asarum Canadense. Red Sorrel. Greenish, red, or yellow; sepals 4 to 6, persistent.
Wood Betony. Red and yellow; corolla two-lipped. Pedicu-laris Canadensis.
Scarlet Painted-Cup. Upper leaves of stem more or less scarlet; corolla greenish yellow, two-lipped. Castilleja coccinea.
1. Petals normally 4. Corolla cruciform Purple Cress. Cardamine rhomboidea, var. purpurea.
2. Petals normally 5. Corolla saucer-like.
Hepatica. White, pale pink, lavender, blue; petal-like sepals, 5, often more. Hepatica acutiloba and Hepatica triloba.
1. Modified pea-shape
1. Corolla salver-shape; border 5-lobed
Phlox. Pink varying to white. Phlox divaricata. Moss-Pink. In cultivation. Phlox subulata.
2. Corolla two-lipped Dead-Nettles. Flowers purplish or pink or white. Lamium.
3. Composite heads Fleabanes. Disks yellow; ray-florets many, pinkish. Erigeron.
1. Violet-shape; petals 5
Common Blue Violet. Common stemless species. Viola cucullata. Bird's-Foot Violet. Leaves finely cut; flowers often of two colors. Viola pedata. Dog-Violet. An early form. Viola Labradorica. Long-Spurred Violet. Pale blue with long spurs. Viola ros~ trata.
Grape-Hyacinth. An escape from gardens. Muscari botryoides. Wild Hyacinth. Pale blue; segments almost separate. Quamasia hyacinthina. Bluebells. Deep blue, pink in bed. Mertensia Virginica. Greek Valerian. Blue, rarely white. Polemonium reptans. Water-Leaf. Pale blue or white; calyx with long white hairs.
Hydrophyllum Virginicum. Periwinkle. Blue, escaped from gardens. Vinca minor. Bluets. Pale blue varying to white. Houstonia coerulea. Speedwells. White-centred, pale blue, small flowers. Veronica. Collinsia. Two-lipped; upper lip usually white; lower lip blue.
Collinsia verna. Ground-Ivy. Two-lipped, bluish purple. Glecoma hederacea.
Skunk-Cabbage. With large, fleshy spathe. Spathyema foetida.
Golden-Club. Flowers yellow at the summit of the scape, the spathe becoming a mere bract. Orontiiim aquaticum.
Jack-in-the-Pulpit. Spathe green and purple, striped, curving over the top of the spadix. Arisama triphyllum.
Upright Smilax. Smilax ecirrhata.
Early Meadow-Rue. Dioecious; flowers green; the yellowish anthers of the staminate plant hanging on long filaments. Thalictrum dioicum.
Pink Corydalis. Flowers whitish; tips touched with yellow and pink; one short and rounded spur. Corydalis glauca.
Golden Corydalis. Flowers golden yellow with rounded spur. Corydalis aurea.
Blue Cohosh. Flowers greenish purple; petals 6. Caulophyl-lum thalictroides.
Shooting-Star. Flowers in an umbel; nodding, pointed, whitish, with a cone of stamens grown together. Dodecatheon meadia.
Bunchberry. Low plant with flowers resembling the Flowering Dogwood. Cornns Canadensis.
Cypress-Spurge. Flowers yellowish green; plant usually appearing in beds; stems very leafy. Euphorbia cyparissias.
Rib-Grass. One of the bad Plantain weeds. Plantago lanceo-lata.
Field Horsetail. Not a flowering plant; fertile stems appearing abundantly in early spring in sandy soil. Equisetum arvense.