Name said to be from sano, to heal.
Perennial. Borders of thickets and woodlands. Newfoundland to Alberta, south to Georgia and Tennessee, west to Minnesota and Kansas. Common in northern Ohio. May, June.
Rather stout, one to two feet high, topped by a two to four-rayed umbel.
Palmately three to five-lobed or parted, those from the root long-petioled; involucral leaves smaller.
Irregular or compound, generally few-rayed.
Small, greenish yellow, mostly perfect with a few staminate ones intermixed.
Globular, ribless, thickly covered with hooked prickles.
Pollinated by many insects. Stigmas mature before the anthers, which are imprisoned beneath the petals until all danger of self-fertilization is over. Some flowers are perfect, others staminate only.
Sanicle is difficult to analyze, as all umbel-bearing plants are, but can be easily identified notwithstanding. It grows in rich, moist woodlands, a companion of Sweet Cicely, blooms about the middle of May, ripening its fruit in July. The stem is smooth, pale green, slightly grooved, and hollow, like most of the Umbellif-era. Basal leaves are mostly five-parted, the two lower divisions deeply cleft so that the leaf seems seven-parted; stem-leaves are usually three-parted.
The tiny, pale, greenish yellow flowers are in very small clusters; the five petals of each floret are curiously
Sanicle in Fruit.
Sanicula Marylandica incurved toward the centre of the flower when first it opens; later they are flat. The long stamens of the sterile flowers mature early and are a conspicuous factor in the green-yellow of the flower-clusters.
The small, cone-shaped fruit or burr is densely covered with forked prickles, which seize upon the passerby and are thus transported from place to place. It goes without saying that the plant is a disagreeable weed.