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Our Early Wild Flowers | by Harriet Louise Keeler



A study of the herbaceous plants blooming in early spring in the northern states

TitleOur Early Wild Flowers
AuthorHarriet Louise Keeler
PublisherCharles Scribner's Sons
Year1916
Copyright1916, Charles Scribner's Sons
AmazonNewcomb's Wildflower Guide
Our Early Wild Flowers

Illustrated By Mary Keffer And Eloise P. Luquer

Our Early Wild Flowers 3

To The Memory Of Bertha Keffer This Volume Is Dedicated

-Introduction
In any study of a flora it is important that the limits of the floral region are clearly defined. By Early Wild Flowers is meant that group of herbaceous plants that finds its most congenial home in a...
-Lists Of Flowering Plants
The following lists of plants in bloom gathered in the immediate neighborhood of Cleveland, Ohio, give a fair accounting of the flowers ordinarily found the last of April in that region. The first is ...
-Araceae - Arum Family. Skunk-Cabbage. Symplocarpus Foelidus. Spathyema Foetida
Symplocarpus, a coalescing fruit. Spathyema, Greek, referring to the spathe. Early perennial herb with strong, fetid odor; found in swamps, beside brooks, and on wet hillsides. Nova Scotia to North C...
-Golden-Club. Orontium Aquaticum
Perennial, aquatic herb found in shallow ponds, standing water, and swamps, preferably those accessible to tidewater. New England to the Gulf States, mostly near the coast. Not in Ohio. April, May. R...
-Jack-In-The-Pulpit. Indian-Turnip. Arisama Triphyllum
Arisama, from arts, a kind of arum and alma, blood; alluding to the spotted leaves of some species of the genus. Perennial herb with an acrid corm, sending up a simple scape sheathed with the petiole...
-Bunch-Flower Family. Large-Flowered Bellwort. Perfoliate Bellwort. Uvularia Grandiflora
Uvularia, from uvula, a palate, in allusion to the hanging flowers. An erect, forked herb, perennial by rootstocks. Rich open woods. New England to Minnesota, south to Georgia and Tennessee. Frequent...
-Perfoliate Bellwort. Straw Bell. Uvularia Perfoliata
Erect, forked herb, perennial by rootstocks. Rich, moist woods and thickets. New England and Ontario to Minnesota and south to Florida and Mississippi. Frequent in northern Ohio. May, June. Rootstock...
-Sessile Bellwort. Wild Oats. Uvularia Sessifolia. Oakesia Sessifolia
Oakesia, in honor of William Oakes, a New England botanist. Perennial by rootstocks. Rich open woods and thickets. New Brunswick and Ontario to Minnesota and southward to Florida and Arkansas. Abunda...
-Liliaceae - Lily Family. Faun Lily. Dog's-Tooth Violet. Adder's-Tongue. Erythronium Americanum
Erythronium, the Greek name for the purple-flowered European species. Perennial, growing in beds and patches in rich, moist open woods. New Brunswick to Florida, west to Minnesota and Arkansas. Abund...
-Eastern Camass. Wild Hyacinth. Camassia Fraseri. Scilla Fraseri. Quamasia Hyacinthina
Derived from the native Indian name, quamash or camass. Perennial. Rich alluvial soil, meadows, banks of streams, prairies. Pennsylvania to Minnesota, southward to Georgia and Kansas. Frequent in nor...
-Grape-Hyacinth. Muscari Botryoides
Muscari, from the musky scent of one species of the genus. One of the early flowering, bulbous perennials of country gardens which has escaped into lawns and fields. Naturalized from Europe. March, A...
-Convallariaceae - Lily-Of-The-Valley Family. Yellow Clintonia. Clintonia Borealis
Named in honor of Governor DeWitt Clinton of New York. Perennial. In moist woods and thickets, especially in evergreen woods. Newfoundland, Ontario, and Minnesota, south to North Carolina and Wiscons...
-Lily-Of-The-Valley Family. Smilicina. False Solomon's-Seal. Wild Spikenard. Smilicina Racemosa. Vagnera Racemosa
Smilicina, a diminutive of Smilax. Vagnera, in honor of Wagner. Perennial herb of moist woods and thickets. Nova Scotia to Georgia and westward to Missouri and British America. Abundant in northern O...
-Flower-Of-May. Wild Lily-Of-The-Valley. Maianthemum Canadense. Smilicina Canadensis. Unifolium Canadense
Maianthemum, from Mains, May, and anthemum, flower. Perennial. Open woods and thickets. Newfoundland to the Northwest Territory, south to North Carolina, west to Iowa and South Dakota. Frequent in no...
-Downy Disporum. Prosartes Lanuginosa. Disporum Lanuginosum
From the Greek prosartao, to hang upon; in allusion to the suspended ovules. Disporum, two-seeded, because of the two ovules in each cell of the ovary. Perennial. Moist, rich woods. Ontario to Washin...
-Solomon's-Seal. Polygondtum Biflorum. Salomonia Biflora
Polygonatum, the ancient name; composed of polus, many, and gonu, knee; alluding to the numerous joints of the rootstock. Perennial. Rich woods and shaded hillsides. New Brunswick, Ontario, and Minne...
-Indian Cucumber-Root. Medeola Virginiana
Medeola, from Medea, the name of a sorceress; because the plant was thought to possess great medicinal virtues. Perennial. Moist woods and shady places in rich soil. Nova Scotia to Ontario and Minnes...
-Great White Trillium. Trillium Grandiflorum
Trillium, from triplum, triple, all the parts being in threes. Perennial. Moist, rich open woods. Nova Scotia to Minnesota and Missouri, southward to North Carolina. Abundant in northern Ohio. April,...
-ILL-Scented Trillium. Wake-Robin. Trillium Erectum
Perennial. Moist open woods. Nova Scotia to Minnesota and Manitoba, southward to North Carolina and Tennessee. Common in northern Ohio. April, May. Rootstock Thick, fleshy, bearing coarse rootlets. ...
-Smilaceae - Smilax Family. Upright Smilax. Smilax Ecirrhata
An ancient Greek name. An herbaceous Smilax, in open woods and thickets; of western and southern range. Found in northern Ohio. May. Rootstock Large, tuberous. Stem Annual, smooth, simple, erect,...
-Orchidaceae - Orchid Family. Moccasin-Flower. Pink Lady's-Slipper. Cypripedium Acaille
Cypripedium, from Cypris, Venus, and pedion, sock or buskin, that is, Venus's slipper. Perennial. A remarkably beautiful flower blooming in sandy or rocky woods. Newfoundland to Manitoba, southward t...
-Hairy Lady's-Slipper. Yellow Lady's-Slipper. Cypripedium Pubescens
Perennial. Bogs and moist, hilly woods and thickets. Nova Scotia to Ontario and Minnesota, south to Alabama and Nebraska. Frequent in northern Ohio. May-July. Roots Fleshy, fibrous. Scape Hairy, l...
-Showy Orchis. Orchis Spectabilis. Galcorchis Spectabilis
Orchis is the ancient name, of unknown meaning. Perennial. One of the most charming of woodland flowers found in rich, moist woods. New Brunswick to Ontario, southward to Georgia, Kentucky, and Nebra...
-Aristolochiaceae - Birthwort Family. Wild Ginger. Asarum Canadense
Asarum, an ancient name of obscure derivation. A stemless perennial, found in rich, moist woods, where often it forms large beds of bright-green, velvety leaves. New Brunswick to Manitoba, south to ...
-Polygonaceae - Buckwheat Family. Field-Sorrel. Red Sorrel. Sheep-Sorrel
Rumex acetosella Rumex, the ancient Latin name, of unknown etymology. Field-Sorrel. Rumex acetosella Perennial by running root-stock. Naturalized from Europe. Easily recognized by its arrow-shape...
-Portulacaceae - Purslane Family. Spring-Beauty. Claytonia Virginica
Claytonia, in honor of Doctor John Clayton, a Virginian botanist. Perennial. In thin moist woods. Nova Scotia to the Northwest Territory, southward to Georgia and Texas. Abundant in northern Ohio. M...
-Caryophyllaceae - Pink Family. Common Chickweed. Stellaria Media. Alsine Media
Stellaria, from stella, a star, in allusion to the star-shaped flowers. Alsine, Greek for grove, the habitat of some species. Annual. Naturalized from Europe. Everywhere in damp ground. April-Decembe...
-Ranunculaceae - Crowfoot Family. Hydrastis. Golden Seal. Hydrastis Canadensis
Perennial. Rich woods. New York to Minnesota and southward. Frequent in northern Ohio. April, May. Rootstock Thick, knotted, yellow, about two inches long, with many long, fibrous roots; juices bitt...
-Cowslip. Marsh-Marigold. Caltha Palustris
Caltha is the Latin name of the Marigold. A low, bunched, perennial plant, common in marshes and wet places, blooming in early spring and bearing clusters of brilliant yellow flowers of the buttercup...
-Crowfoot Family. Actaea. White Baneberry. Actaa Alba
Actaa, an ancient name of the Elder, transferred to this plant by Linnaeus. Perennial. Open woods. Nova Scotia, west to Minnesota, south to Georgia and Louisiana. Common in northern Ohio. April-June....
-Wild Columbine. Honeysuckle. Aquilegia Canadensis
Perennial. Sunny, rocky slopes and ledges, sides of ravines, something of a cliff-dweller. Nova Scotia to the Northwest Territory, south to Florida and Texas. Frequent in northern Ohio. April-July. S...
-Anemone. Windflower. Anemone Quinquefolia. Anemone Nemorosa, Var. Quinquefolia
Perennial. Margins of woods and thickets, in the sun and yet somewhat shaded. Nova Scotia to Ontario and Minnesota, west to the Rocky Mountains, south to Georgia. Abundant in northern Ohio. April, May...
-American Pasque-Flower. Anemone Patens, Var. Nuttalliana. Pulsatilla Hirtissima
Perennial. In dry soil, prairies. Illinois to the Northwest Territory, Nebraska, and Texas. Absent from northern Ohio. March, April. Rootstock Thick. Scape Six to twelve inches high, with a three-...
-Meadow Rue Anemone. Anemonella Thalictroides. Syndesmon Thalictroides
Syndesmon, Greek, bound together, the plant uniting many of the characters of Anemone and Thalictrum. Perennial. In rich woods and borders of thickets. Maine to Minnesota and Kansas. Abundant in nort...
-False Rue-Anemone. Isopyrum Isopyrum Biternatum
Perennial. Moist woods and thickets. Ontario to Minnesota, south to Florida and Texas. Rare in northern Ohio. May. Root Fibrous and bearing small tubers. Stem Erect, slender, branching above. Lea...
-Hepatica. Liverleaf
Hepatica acutiloba. Hepatica triloba Hepatica, liver, referring to the shape of the leaf. Low, stemless perennial. Native to the open woods of the northern parts of America, Europe, and Asia. Grows i...
-Early Meadow-Rue. Thalictrum Dioicum
Thalictrum - derivation unknown. Perennial. Noticeable for its tufts of beautiful fernlike leaves. In rich, open woods. Labrador to Alabama, west to Minnesota and Missouri. Abundant in northern Ohio....
-Crowfoot Family. Tufted Buttercup. Early Buttercup. Ranunculus Fascicularis
Ranunculus, a little frog, because some species live near water. Perennial. Open woods and rocky hillsides. New England, Ontario, Manitoba, south to North Carolina and Texas. Common in northern Ohio....
-Swamp-Buttercup. Marsh-Buttercup. Ranunculus Septentrionalis
Perennial. Low, swampy, moist, and shaded places. New Brunswick to Manitoba, south to Georgia and Kentucky. Frequent in northern Ohio. April-July. Roots Fibrous. Stems One to three feet high, thic...
-Kidney-Leaved Crowfoot. Small-Flowered Buttercup. Ranunculus Abortivus
Biennial. Shady hillsides, along brooks, in open woods. Newfoundland, Labrador, Nova Scotia to Manitoba, south to Florida, Arkansas, and Colorado. Common in northern Ohio. April-June. Roots Thick-tu...
-Berberidaceae - Barberry Family. May-Apple. Wild Mandrake. Podophyllum Peltatum
Podophyllum, from pous, foot, and phyllon, leaf, probably referring to the stout stems; duck-foot leaf is the probable meaning. Perennial. Growing in beds and patches in open woods and fields. Nova S...
-Jeffersonia. Twinleaf. Jeffersonia Diphylla
Named in honor of Thomas Jefferson. Perennial. In moist open woods. Western New York to Wisconsin, and south to Virginia and Tennessee. Found in northern Ohio. April, May. Rootstock Thick, horizont...
-Blue Cohosh. Pappoose-Root. Caulophyllum Thalictroides
Caulophyllum, Greek, stem-leaf, the stem seeming to form a stalk for the great leaf. A smooth, perennial herb that comes up in early spring a dark purplish color, fading to green. Rich open woods. Ne...
-Papaverageae - Poppy Family. Sanguinaria. Bloodroot
Sanguinaria Canadensis Sanguinaria, from the red juice of the rootstock. Perennial. In rich open woodlands. One of the very earliest spring flowers, appearing long before the leaves of trees or shrub...
-Poppy Family. Greater Celandine. Chelidonium Majus
From chelidon, a swallow, because it appeared at the time the swallows came. Perennial. Naturalized from Europe. Dry waste land, roadsides, near dwellings. Throughout New England and the Middle West....
-Fumariaceae - Fumitory Family. Dicentra. Dutchman's-Breeches. White Hearts. Dicentra Cucullaria. Bicuculla Cucullaria
Dicentra, double spur; from dis, twice, and kentron, a spur. Low, stemless perennial. In rich open woods, ravines, and on hillsides. Nova Scotia to Minnesota and Washington, southward to North Caroli...
-Dicentra. Squirrel-Corn. Dicentra Canadensis. Bicuculla Canadensis
Low, stemless perennial. Rich open woods, especially northward. Nova Scotia to Minnesota and Washington, southward to North Carolina. Abundant in the ravines of northern Ohio. April, May. Roots Subt...
-Pale Or Pink Corydalis. Corydalis Sempervirens. Corydalis Glauca. Capnoides Sempervirens
The ancient Greek name, from korydalos, the lark, because the spur is crested. Perennial. Rocky cliffs in moist and open woods. Nova Scotia to Alaska, south to North Carolina, west to Minnesota. Rare...
-Cruciferae - Mustard Family. Purple Spring-Cress. Cardamine Purpurea. Cardamine Rhomboidea. Var. Purpurea
Perennial. Rich soil in open woods and along streams in ravines. Quebec to the Canadian Rockies, New England, south to Maryland and west to Wisconsin. Abundant in northern Ohio. March, April. Rootsto...
-Cuckoo-Flower. Meadow Bitter Cress
Cardamine pratensis Perennial. In low rich land. Naturalized from Europe. Labrador to New Jersey, west to British Columbia and Minnesota. Probably not in northern Ohio. April, May. Roots Fibrous. S...
-Cut-Leaved Dentaria. Pepper-Root. Dentaria Laciniata
Perennial. Moist ground in open woods. Nova Scotia, Ontario, Minnesota, southward to the Carolinas, Louisiana, and Kansas. Abundant in northern Ohio. April, May. Cut-Leaved Dentaria. Dentaria laci...
-Crinkle-Root. Two-Leaved Dentaria. Dentaria Diphylla
Name from dens, tooth, referring to the root. Perennial. Rich leaf-mould in open woods, sometimes in thickets and meadows. Nova Scotia, Ontario, Minnesota, southward to the Carolinas and Kentucky. Fr...
-Yellow Rocket. Winter-Cress. Barbarea Vulgaris
Barbarea, because anciently called the Herb of St. Barbara. An early blooming biennial. Naturalized from Europe. Sunny places in low grounds and margins of runlets. Labrador to New York, south to Vir...
-Mustard Family. Vernal Whitlow-Grass. Draba Verna
Annual or biennial. Naturalized from Europe. Wastelands, sandy fields, and roadsides, from Atlantic coast to the Mississippi. February-May. Whitlow-Grass. Draba verna Stem One to five inches hig...
-Lyre-Leaved Rock-Cress. Arabis Lyrata
Perennial or biennial. Sandy or rocky places. Ontario to Manitoba, south to Virginia, Tennessee, and Missouri. Found in northern Ohio. April, May. Lyre-Leaved Rock-Cress. Arabis lyrata Stem Erec...
-Shepherd's-Purse. Capsella Bursa-Pastoris
Bursa bursa-pastoris Capsella, a diminutive of capsa, a box. Winter annual. Naturalized from Europe. Waste places, roadsides. World-wide. April-November. Root. - Strikes Deep Into The Ground. Stem ...
-Saxifragaceae: - Saxifrage Family. Early Saxifrage. Saxifraga Virginiensis
Name from saxum, a rock, and frango, to break, referring to the habit of several species of growing upon rocks. Early Saxifrage. Saxifraga Virginiensis Perennial. Exposed rocks and dry hillsides....
-Golden Saxifrage. Chrysosplenium Americanum
Name compounded of chrysos, golden, and splen, the spleen; probably from some reputed medicinal qualities. Perennial. Native. An inconspicuous, early blooming plant, growing in cold, wet places. Nova...
-Mitella. Bishop's-Cap. Mitella Diphylla
Mitella, diminutive of mitra, a cap, alluding to the form of the young pod. Perennial. A low, slender plant, with round, heart-shaped leaves, found in rich woods. New England to North Carolina, west ...
-Tiarella. Tiarella. False Mitrewort. Foam-Flower. Tiarella Cordifolia
Tiarella, diminutive from tiara, a turban, from the form of the pistil, which is similar to that of Mitella, to which the name Mitrewort, properly belongs. Perennial. Found in colonies on wooded hill...
-Rosaceae - Rose Family. Wild Strawberry. Fragaria Virginidna
Name from the fragrance of the fruit. Stemless perennial. Forming little dark green tufts in scattered patches in fields, pastures, and along roadsides. Nova Scotia to the Dakotas, and south to Flori...
-Potentilla. Five-Fingers. Potentilla Canadensis
Potentilla, from potens, powerful, because some members of the species have medicinal value. Perennial. Roadsides and fields, growing in mats and patches; common and variable; produces summer runners...
-Papilionaceae - Pea Family. White Clover. Trifolium Repens. Trifolium, Three-Leaved
Low, creeping perennial. Fields, roadsides, lawns, everywhere. America, Europe, Asia. April-November. Stem Creeping and spreading by runners, rooting at the nodes or joints. Leaves On long petiole...
-Red Clover. Trifolium Pratense
Short-lived perennial. Introduced from Europe. Everywhere. The State flower of Vermont. April-November. Stem Coarse, leafy, branching, more or less hairy, six inches to two feet high, growing in tuf...
-Alsike Clover. Trifolium Hybridum
Perennial. Becoming common. Fields and roadsides. Stems Erect or ascending, not rooting at the nodes. Leaves Long-petioled, compound, of three leaflets; leaflets short-stalked, obovate, narrowed a...
-Carolina Vetch. Vicia Caroliniana
A climbing perennial. River banks and cliffs. Ontario and New York, west to Minnesota and Kansas, south to Georgia. Frequent in northern Ohio. April, May. Stem Two to three feet long, smooth, four-s...
-Geraniaceae - Geranium Family. Wild Geranium. Spotted Crane's-Bill. Alum-Root. Geranium Maculatum
Gerdnium, a crane, from the long beak of the fruiting capsule. Perennial. Open woods and fields. Newfoundland to Manitoba, south to Georgia, Alabama, and Kansas. Abundant in northern Ohio. April-July...
-Oxalidaceae - Wood-Sorrel Family. Yellow Wood-Sorrel. Oxalis Stricta. Oxalis Comiculdta, Var. Stricta
Name from oxus, sour, in allusion to the taste of the foliage. Annual or perennial by subterranean shoots. Naturalized from Europe. Roadsides, fence corners, and waste places. Everywhere. May-October...
-Polygalaceae - Milkwort Family. Fringed Polygala. Flowering Wintergreen. Polygala Paucifolia
An old name composed of polus, much, and gala, milk, from a fancied property of its increasing this secretion. Perennial. A delicate plant with very handsome rose-colored flowers, found in open woods...
-Euphorbiaceae - Spurge Family. Cypress-Spurge. Euphorbia Cyparissias
Euphorbia, an ancient name, in honor of Euphorbus, King Juba's physician. Perennial. Naturalized from Europe and escaped from gardens and old graveyards; grows in patches. Throughout northeastern Uni...
-Violaceae - Violet Family. Violet. Viola
Violets dim, But sweeter than the lids of Juno's eyes Or Cytherea's breath. - The Winter's Tale, Shakespeare. The Violets compose a floral family whose members vary but slightly from the type. T...
-Common Blue Violet. Viola Cucullata. Viola Palmdta, Var. Cucullata
Perennial, stemless flowers, violet-blue. Low grounds. Common throughout the north. Abundant in northern Ohio. April, May. Rootstock Short and thick. Leaves Smooth, deep green, roundish, heart-sha...
-Bird's-Foot Violet. Viola Pedata
Perennial, stemless, flowers lilac and blue. Sandy or gravelly soil, dry fields and hillsides. Maine to Minnesota, south to Florida and Missouri. Rare in northern Ohio. April, May. Arrow-Leaved Viole...
-Round-Leaved Violet. Viola Rotundifolia
Perennial, stemless, flowers yellow. Deep, cold woods. Labrador, Ontario, and Minnesota, south to North Carolina. Rare in northern Ohio. April, May. Rootstock Long and slender. Leaves Round, ovate...
-Sweet White Violet. Viola Blanda
Perennial, stemless, flowers white. Swamps and moist lands. Newfoundland to British Columbia, south to North Carolina. Abundant in northern Ohio. April, May. Rootstock Very slender, sending out stol...
-Lance-Leaved Violet. Viola Lanceolata
Perennial, stemless, flowers white. Damp soil along streams. Nova Scotia to Minnesota, south to Florida and Texas. Rare in northern Ohio. April-June. Rootstock Long and slender, sending out stolons ...
-Halberd-Leaved Violet. Viola Hastata
Perennial, having stems, flowers yellow. Open woods. Pennsylvania and Ohio to Georgia and Alabama. Frequent in northern Ohio. April, May. Stem Rather smooth, slender, four to ten inches high. Leave...
-Downy Yellow Violet. Viola Pubescens
Perennial, having stems, and yellow flowers. In open woods. Maine to Minnesota and Nebraska, south to Georgia and Texas. Frequent in northern Ohio. March, April. Stem Simple, erect, downy. Leaves ...
-Canada Violet. Viola Canadensis
Perennial, having stems, flowers white tinged with purple. Rich woods. Newfoundland to Saskatchewan, south to North Carolina. Abundant in northern Ohio. April, May. Stems Tufted, leafy, six to eight...
-Cream Violet. Pale Violet. Striped Violet. Viola Striata
Perennial, having stems, flowers cream-white. Moist woods and fields. New England west to Minnesota, and south to Georgia. Abundant in northern Ohio. April-October. Stem Erect or spreading, tufted, ...
-Dog-Violet
Viola canina, var. Muhlenbergii. Viola canina, var. Labradorica. Viola Labradorica An early, stemmed species of Blue Violet, growing in moist soil from Labrador to Minnesota, and south to the Caroli...
-Long-Spurred Violet. Viola Rostrata
Perennial, having stems, flowers pale violet. Shaded hillsides and rocky woods. Quebec to Michigan, south in the mountains to Georgia. Frequent in northern Ohio. April, May. Stems Numerous, erect, t...
-Arallaceae - Ginseng Family. Dwarf Ginseng. Groundnut. Aralia Trifolia. Panax Trifolium
Perennial. Rich woods. Nova Scotia to Minnesota, south to Georgia. Common in northern Ohio. April, May. Root Tuberous, deep in the ground, pungent to the taste and not aromatic. Stem Four to eight...
-Wild Sarsaparilla. Aralia Nudicaulis
Perennial. Rich, shady, moist woods. Newfoundland to Georgia, west to Colorado and Idaho. Common in northern Ohio. May-June. Entire plant aromatic. Root Long, horizontal, aromatic. Stem One short ...
-Umbelllferae - Carrot Family. Downy Sweet Cicely. Osmorrhiza Brevistylis. Washingtonia Claytoni
Osmorrhisa, from osme, odor, and rhiza, root; the roots have a pleasant odor. Perennial. In moist, rich woodlands. Nova Scotia to Minnesota and Dakota, south to Virginia and Tennessee. Abundant in no...
-Harbinger-Of-Spring. Harbinger-Of-Spring. Pepper-And-Salt. Erigenia Bulbosa
Erigenia, Greek, born in the spring. A low, smooth, perennial herb, found in open woods and alluvial bottom-lands. Western New York to Minnesota and Kansas, south to Maryland and Tennessee. Common in...
-Sanicle Sanicle. Black Snakeroot. Sanicula Marylandica
Name said to be from sano, to heal. Perennial. Borders of thickets and woodlands. Newfoundland to Alberta, south to Georgia and Tennessee, west to Minnesota and Kansas. Common in northern Ohio. May, ...
-Golden Meadow-Parsnip. Golden Meadow-Parsnip. Early Meadow-Parsnip. Zizia Aurea
Zizia, in honor of Ziz, a Rhenish botanist. Perennial. In fields, meadows, and swamps. New Brunswick to Florida, west to Dakotas and Texas. Common in northern Ohio. April-June. Stem Smooth, one to ...
-Cornaceae - Dogwood Family. Dwarf Cornel. Bunchberry. Cornus Canadensis
A low, herbaceous shrub, possessing the characteristic blossoms of the Flowering Dogwood. Cool, moist woods. Newfoundland to Alaska, south to New Jersey, Ohio, Indiana, Minnesota, Colorado, and Califo...
-Ericaceae - Heath Family. Trailing Arbutus. Mayflower. Epigaa Repens
Epigaa, from epi, upon, and ge, the earth, in allusion to the habit of trailing growth. A prostrate, slightly woody, branching shrub with alternate evergreen leaves; growing in sandy loam, mossy, roc...
-Diapensiaceae - Diapensia Family. Pyxie, Flowering Moss. Pine-Barren Beauty. Pyxidanthera Barbulata
Name from pyxis, a small box, and anthera, anther; the anther opening as if by a lid. Perennial. A small, creeping evergreen shrub, very-leafy, much branched, growing in mat-like patches. Moist, sand...
-Primulaceae - Primrose Family. Star-Flower. Trientalis Americana
Trientalis, one-third of a foot, the usual height of the plant. Low and smooth perennial. Moist shade of woods and thickets. Nova Scotia to Minnesota, southward to the mountains of Virginia. Rare in ...
-Shooting-Star. Dodecatheon Meadia
Dodecatheon, from dodeka, twelve, and theoi, gods; the twelve gods, a name given by Pliny to the Primrose, which was believed to be under the protection of the superior gods. Perennial. A plant of cl...
-Menyanthaceae - Buckbean Family. Buckbean. Marsh-Trefoil. Menyanthes Trifoliata
The ancient name probably from men, month, and anthos, flower; some say from the length of its flowering period, which is about a month. A perennial swamp herb, bearing in early spring sprays of beau...
-Apocynacebe - Dogbane Family. Vinca. Periwinkle. Trailing Myrtle. Vinca Minor
Perennial. Native to Europe and escaped from gardens; common in country gardens, cemeteries, and shady places. April-November. Stem Trailing and creeping, rooting at the nodes; only the short flower...
-Polemoniaceae - Phlox Family. Phlox Phlox Divaricata. Phlox, Flame, Is An Ancient Name Transferred To This Genus
Perennial. Moist open woods and fields. Ontario to Minnesota, south to Florida, Kansas, and Arkansas. Abundant in northern Ohio. April, May. Stem Downy, erect or diffuse, with creeping prostrate or...
-Ground-Pink. Moss-Pink. Phlox Subulata
Perennial. In dry, sandy or rocky soil, extensively cultivated as an early blooming plant. New York to Michigan, south to Florida and Kentucky. Escaped from cultivation in New England. Rare in norther...
-Polemonium Polemonium. Greek Valerian. Jacob'Sladder. Polemonium Reptans
From the Greek, polemos, war. Perennial. Alluvial bottoms. New York to Minnesota, south to Georgia and Kansas. Frequent in northern Ohio. April, May. Stem Smooth, branching, twelve to eighteen inch...
-Hydrophyllaceae - Water-Leaf Family. Hydrophyllum. Virginia Water-Leaf. Hydrophyllum Virginicum
From the Greek, hydor, water, and phyllon, leaf, but the allusion is not evident. Perennial. Moist, shady places in rich soil. From Quebec to Alaska, south to South Carolina, Kansas, and Washington. ...
-Boraginaceae - Borage Family. Virginia Cowslip. Bluebells. Lungwort. Mertensia Virginica
Named in honor of Mertens, a German botanist. Perennial. In low meadows and along streams, often cultivated. Ontario to Minnesota, south to New Jersey, South Carolina, Nebraska, and Kansas. Frequent ...
-Labiate - Mint Family. Ground-Ivy. Gill-Over-The-Ground. Nepeta Glecoma. Glecoma Hederacea
Perennial. Naturalized from Europe. Found in damp or shaded places. Newfoundland, Ontario, and Minnesota, south to Georgia and Kansas. Common in northern Ohio. April-September. Stem Square, creeping...
-Dead-Nettle. Henbit. Lamium Amplexicaule
Lamium, from laimos, throat; in allusion to the gaping corolla. Biennial or winter annual. Naturalized from Europe. Found in cultivated grounds and waste places. Common. May-November. Stems Weak, s...
-Scrophulariaceae - Figwort Family. Collinsia. Collinsia Verna
Collinsia, dedicated to Zaccheus Collins, botanist, of Philadelphia. Biennial or winter annual. Moist meadows, woods, and thickets. Western New York and Pennsylvania to Wisconsin, Kentucky, and Oklah...
-Corn Speedwell. Veronica Arvensis
A winter annual. Naturalized from Europe. The earliest Speedwell. In cultivated soil, fields, woods, and waste places. Nova Scotia to Minnesota, south to Florida and Kansas. Found in northern Ohio. Ap...
-Common Speedwell. Veronica Officinalis
Perennial by stolons. Naturalized from Europe. Dry fields and woods. Nova Scotia to South Dakota, and south to Georgia and Tennessee. Common in northern Ohio. April-August. Stem Prostrate, rooting a...
-Figwort Family. Scarlet Painted-Cup. Castilleja Coccinea
Named for Castillejo, a Spanish botanist. Perennial or biennial. Low, sandy ground. Maine and Ontario to Manitoba, south to the Carolinas, Kansas, and Texas. Appears in northern Ohio. May-July. Stem...
-Wood Betony. Lousewort. Pediculdris Canadensis
Pedicularis, relating to lice; long supposed to breed lice in sheep that feed on the plant. Perennial. Found in sprawling clusters on sandy knolls in moist woods, on dry roadside banks. Nova Scotia t...
-Plantaginaceae - Plantain Family. Rib-Grass. Ribbed Plantain. Plantago Lanceolata
Perennial. Naturalized from Europe. In fields and on roadsides, a very common weed. April-June. Scape Naked, grooved, angled, slender, one to two feet high. Leaves Lanceolate or lance-oblong, form...
-Rubiaceae - Madder Family. Bluets. Innocents. Houstonia Cocerulea
Houstonia, named in honor of Doctor William Houston, an early English botanist. Perennial. Growing in tufts by means of delicate creeping stems, in grassy places both moist and dry. Nova Scotia and O...
-Goose-Grass. Goose-Grass. Bedstraw. Galium Aperine
Galium, Greek, milk, one of the species having been used to curdle milk. Annual trailing herb. In rich, shaded grounds. Naturalized from Europe. New Brunswick to the Dakotas, south to Florida and Tex...
-Compositae - Composite Family. Dandelion. Taraxacum Taraxacum. Taraxacum Dens-Leonis
Name from tarasso, to disquiet, in allusion to its medicinal properties. Perennial. Perhaps our most common weed; with basal leaves, brilliant yellow flowers and milky juice. Introduced and indigenou...
-Coltsfoot. Tussilago Farfara
Named from tussis, cough, for which the plant is a reputed remedy. Perennial. Naturalized from Europe. Wet places and along brooks, in New England, New York, and Pennsylvania; rare in the Middle West...
-Antennaria. Antennaria. Dwarf Everlasting. Pussy-Toes. Antennaria Plantaginifolia
Antennaria, named from the resemblance of the sterile pappus to the antennae of certain insects. Perennial. Woolly herbs that appear as broad white patches of leaves carpeting dry fields, hillside pa...
-Robin's Plantain. Daisy Fleabane. Erigeron Pulchellus. Erigeron Bellifolium
Erigeron, from er, spring, and geron, an old man; suggested by the abundant pappus of some species. Perennial. Moist banks and grassy fields, borders of woods. Nova Scotia to Ontario and South Dakota...
-Composite Family. Senecio. Golden Ragwort. Senecio Aureus
Name from senex, an old man, alluding to the white, silky hairs of the pappus, which soon make the fertile disks hoary. Biennial. One of the few brilliantly yellow daisy-like flowers of spring. Open ...
-Equisetaceae - Horsetail Family. Field Horsetail. Equisetum Arvense
In early spring there appear in dry, sterile places, often on the slope of a railway embankment, in locations where few other plants can even exist, myriads of brownish yellow stems four to twelve inc...
-Glossary Of Botanical Terms
Acute Sharp-pointed. Akene A dry fruit. Alternate Not opposite, arranged singly at different heights on the stem. Annual Of one year's duration. Winter Annual, a plant from autumn-sown seed whi...
-Color Key For Identification Of Plants
Flowers White Or Nearly So A. Corolla Of Several Similar Petals Or Petal-Like Sepals 1,2,3 1. Petals normally 3 Great White Trillium. Trillium grandiflorum. Snowy Trillium. Earliest Trillium; blo...
-Books On Garden Field And Wood By Mrs. William Starr Dana (Frances Theodora Parsons)
How To Know The Wild Flowers With colored plates and black-and-white drawings. Crown 8vo, $2.00 net. I am delighted with it ... it is exactly the kind of work needed for outdoor folk who live in t...
-Books On Garden Field And Wood By Louise Shelton
Beautiful Gardens In America With more than 170 photographs and 16 full-page color reproductions. $5.00 net. A pure delight, a book for every day of the year, a thing of beauty. . . . Indeed, the v...
-Books On Garden Field And Wood By Harriet L. Keeler
With 8 full-page illustrations in full color, 12 full-page half-tones, and numerous drawings. 16mo, cloth, $1.00 net; leather, $1.25 net. This is a comprehensive and authoritative study of the early ...









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