Larger Bur-Marigold; Brook Sunflower (Bidens Laevis) is a very attractive species while it is in flower, but later, after the little seeds have formed, it has the same disagreeable traits common to all the members of the genus; the seeds have the same two little teeth (bidens) and stick just as closely as those of their more homely relatives. The flowers of this species are 1 to 2 in. across, having 8 or 10 large, yellow, neutral rays surrounding the dull-colored disc florets. The stem is slender and branching, the leaves lance-shaped and toothed. Common in swamps and along brooks.
A. Ox-eye Daisy; White Daisy.
Common White Daisy; Ox-Eye Daisy (Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum) (European) is a naturalized, floral citizen. It is so common and has become so wide-spread that it is even better known than most of our common native flowers. It is a very beautiful species in the eyes of all not engaged in pursuits agricultural, but to the farmer it is a pest that must be exterminated if he would make hay. It grows in such profusion and multiplies so rapidly that it often forms a snow-white, floral carpet over whole fields. They furnish beautiful bouquets for the home and much amusement for the children. I wonder how many of the lassies, who read these lines, fail to remember the old ditty: - "Rich man, poor man, etc." and the shorter one supposed to conclusively prove or disprove the affection of someone.
This daisy needs no description. We have two very similar kinds differing in the shape of the leaves one being more pinnatifid than the other. The one shown on the opposite page is the most common, a variety of Leucanthemum called (pinnatifidum). The other variety has the ends of the leaves rounded and finely toothed but not cut or slashed.
Feverfew (Chrysanthemum Parthenium) (European) is found in some places in the East as an escape from gardens. The stem grows from 1 to 2 feet tall and is quite branching. The flowers are grouped in clusters; they are much smaller than those of the last species and have a comparatively broader disc of yellow florets. The leaves are broad, deeply pinnatifid and each division further toothed or cut. It is locally naturalized from Mass to N. J. and westwards. It blooms from June until Sept., the same as does the last species.
B. Mayweed; Chamomile.
Yarrow; Milfoil (Achillea Millefolium) is one of the most common of our wayside weeds. Its generic name is applied because the mighty Achilles formerly used an Old World yarrow for healing the wounds of his soldiers. The leaves and their juices are still used in this and other countries in medicinal remedies and for their healing properties.
The stem is stout, gray-green usually simple, or forking near the top. The leaves, alternating along and clasping the stem, are soft and feathery, - deeply and finely bipinnatifid.
The flowers grow in very compact, flat-topped clusters at the top of the stem. Each flower head has a center of short, tubular, yellowish florets that turn brown or grayish as they grow old; they are surrounded by from four to six round, white rays. In some localities these ray florets, that, by the way, are pistillate, vary in color through pink to a deep crimson. This latter color is most apt to occur near the seacoast. I have met with it most frequently on Cape Cod.
Yarrow is a very hardy plant; we may find it thriving beside roads where the dust has killed nearly every other living thing. Its leaves have a strong, not unpleasant, aromatic odor.