Silver-Rod; White Golden-Rod (Solidago Bicolor) bears the distinction of being the only one of our very numerous Golden-rods that does not have golden flowers. Those of this species are white or cream-colored. The stem is usually simple and attains heights of from 10 to 30 inches. It is downy and is rather closely set with rough, elliptical, slightly toothed leaves. The clusters of flower heads grow in racemes from the axils of the upper leaves or in a cylindrical terminal spike.
The cream-yellow tubular florets are surrounded by from three to twelve white rays. As a rule, the flower heads are not as closely crowded together as in other species. Silver-rod blooms during August and September on dry ground, frequently along roadsides or the edges of woods, from N. B. to Minn, and southwards to the Gulf.
Blue-Stemmed Golden-Rod (Solidago Caesia) blooms during Sept. and Oct. The simple stem is closely set with lanceolate, toothed leaves, and from the axils of those on the upper half of the stem, appear loose racemes of flowers. The heads are rather larger than those of most of the Golden-rods and have from three to five, comparatively long, golden rays surrounding the tubular florets.
This species has a somewhat bluish or purplish cast to the stem; the arrangement of the flowers, from the axils of the leaves, will serve best to identify it however.
Early Golden-rod. Solidago sempervirens.
Early Golden-Rod (Solidago Juncea) is a very common species and one of the earliest to bloom, being found in flower from July until Sept. The flowers are in a large graceful cluster, composed of numerous racemes, at the summit of a tall, simple stem 2 to 4 feet high. The stem is smooth, angular and usually a ruddy brown. The leaves are smooth, lance-shaped; the lower ones toothed, but the upper with nearly even edges. The golden-yellow flowers have eight to ten rays. Found in dry places from N. B. to Sask. and southwards.
Seaside Golden-Rod (Solidago Sempervirens) is a common species of the salt marshes from Me. to Fla. It has a large, showy flower cluster, and the flowerheads, individually, are also quite large;, they have 7 to 10 rays. The lanceolate leaves are tooth-less and slightly clasping at their bases. The smooth, stout stem grows from 2 to 8 feet tall.
Rough-Stemmed Golden-Rod (Solidago Rug-Osa) is a very hairy species, rough to the touch. The stem attains heights of 1 to 7 feet and often branches at the top. The flower racemes spread in a broad pyramidal panicle. The pale golden-yellow flowers have 6 to 9 rays. The leaves are feather-veined, quite hairy and coarsely toothed. Common in fields and on the borders of woods and thickets from Newfoundland to Minn, and southwards.