Gray's Lily (L. Grayi) has one or two deep orange-red flowers in a horizontal position; thickly spotted within; sepals spreading but little and uniting in a larger base than the preceding. Leaves in whorls of three to eight. Found in mountains from Va. to N. C.
Tiger Lily (L. Tigrinum) (Chinese) is a magnificent species with larger and brighter flowers than the Turk's-cap. Leaves 7-nerved instead of three. An escape from gardens.
These flowers are familiar and welcome ones to all who wander beside woodland brooks in the Spring. The name "Violet" is of course a misnomer. It is often locally known at the "Trout Lily" or the "Fawn Lily," both of which names are far more appropriate than those given it generally.
A. Yellow Adder's - tongue.
The single flower grows at the top of a scape from 5 to 10 in. high; it is 6-parted. with a lily-like perianth, the sepals being dull yellowish, spotted near the bases with brownish. Two elliptical-lanceolate leaves clasp the scape at its base, near the scaly bulb; they are pale green, mottled with purple and white. This species blooms in April and May in moist woods or swamps, from N. B. to Minn, and southwards.
White Adder's Tongue (E. Albidum) is similar in size and form but the flower that nods at the top of the scape is either white or pale violet. The two leaves are less distinctly, or not at all, spotted. This is found in the same range as the last.
E. mesochoreum has narrower leaves and pale violet flowers. Prairies of la. and Mo.
E. propullans has small pointed leaves and bright rose-colored flowers. Found in Minn, and Ont.
Clintonia (Clintonia Borealis) is named for and dedicated to a former N. Y. statesman, DeWitt Clinton. It is a beautiful species, its leaves resembling those of the Lily-of-the-Valley. The three to six pendulous, bell-shaped flowers are cream-colored within and greenish outside. Three large, oblong, pointed leaves clasp the flower scape at its base. The plant is about 6 to 16 in. high; it flowers during June in damp woods from Labrador to Man. and southwards.
C. umbel lata has many smaller white flowers, spotted with purple. Mountains, N. Y. to Ga.
False Spikenard. Smilacina racemosa.
Wild Spikenard (Smilacina Racemosa) is quite an imposing plant, with its long, curving, zigzag stem, its many light green deeply ribbed leaves and its feathery terminal flower clusters.
The white flowers are tiny but perfect, with a 6-parted perianth, six slender stamens and a short, thick style. The stem is rather angular and attains a length of from 1 to 3 feet; alternating along it are the large, oval, sharply pointed leaves, with parallel ribs and wavy edge. The perennial rootstalk is thick and fleshy. Spikenard is quite abundant in most rich, uncleared ground, flowering in May and June, from Me. to Minn, southwards.