(Plate XLVI)

Family

Madder.

Colour

Blue, with yellow centre.

Odour

Scentless.

Range

Nova Scotia to Michigan,and southward.

Time of Bloom

May, June.

Flowers: terminal; solitary. Calyx: four-cleft. Corolla: salver-shaped, with four oval, pointed lobes. Stamens: four. Pistil: one; style compound.

Leaves: opposite; sessile; oblong; entire; glabrous. Stem: erect; branching; glabrous.

There are no paupers among the Quakers; and surely this sameness of principle must have suggested the common name of these little ladies. For to travel through the moist meadows that are aglow with their quaint faces and bright eyes suggests the most lavish luxury of bloom. In New England and about Trenton, New Jersey, they are especially beautiful. In fact, during the season, they gladden almost every spot that is sunshiny and moist. Besides their sprightly, crisp appearance they have an added charm in not closing up and fading quickly after they have been plucked.

Under a microscope it can be seen that the flowers are dimorphous, occurring in two forms. In some blossoms the pistil is long and the stamens short and in others the reverse is the case. To effect fertilization it is necessary that the tall pistils should receive the pollen from the tall stamens of another flower; and the short pistils, the pollen from the short stamens. This is one of the very interesting guards against self-fertilization.