The members of the Orchid family in New York State, of which several are described and illustrated here, constitute a very important number of our wild flowers and call for a description of the family. They are all perennial herbs with corms, bulbs or tuberous roots and entire, sheathing leaves, in some species reduced to scales. Flowers perfect, irregular, solitary, spiked or racemed. Perianth consisting of six segments, the three outer (sepals) similar or nearly so, two of the inner ones (petals) lateral, alike; the third inner one (lip) unlike the other two, often markedly so, usually larger, often spurred. Stamens variously united with the style into an unsymmetrical column, usually one anther, sometimes two, each two-celled; the pollen in two to eight pear-shaped, usually stalked masses (pollinia), united by elastic threads, the masses waxy or powdery and attached at the base to a viscid disc (gland). Style often terminating in a beak (rostellum) at the base of the anther or between its sacs. Stigma a viscid surface, facing the lip beneath the rostellum, or the cavity between the anther sacs (clinandrium). Ovary inferior, usually long and sometimes twisted, three-angled, one-celled. Seeds very numerous and minute, usually spindle shaped.