Stems usually several together from a perennial root, erect or ascending, 6 to 18 inches high, hairy. Leaves rather thick, oblong-lanceolate, 3 to 5 inches long, at least the lower on slender petioles and divided almost to the midrib into numerous incised or sharply toothed segments, giving the leaf a fernlike appearance. Flowers borne in short, dense, spikes lengthening to 5 or 6 inches in fruit. Calyx oblique, tubular, cleft on the lower side. Corolla yellow, varying to yellowish brown or purplish brown in certain individuals, two-thirds to three-fourths of an inch long, tubular, two-lipped, the upper lip (galea) arched, incurved, minutely two-toothed below the apex, laterally compressed into a hood with the four stamens ascending within it; lower lip erect with three spreading lobes. Fruit an oblique capsule, flattened, lanceolate-oblong or sword-shaped, about two-thirds of an inch long and one-sixth of an inch wide, fully three times the length of the calyx.
In dry woods and thickets, Nova Scotia to Manitoba, south to Florida, Kansas and Colorado. Flowering from April to June.
Memoir 15 N. Y. State Museum
Wood Or Head Betony; Lousewort - Pedicularis canadensis