Leaves compound, deeply cut, or lobed
Leaves quite simple, at most toothed .
122. Cuckoo-Flower, Lady's Smock, Cardamine pratensis, Cress family. A conspicuous spring flower, of moist meadows: the stem is 1 to 1½ ft. high, and is crowned by a loose bunch of large lilac flowers: the leaves are feather-compound: the leaflets of the lower leaves are roundish, of the upper, lance-shaped: as the English name would indicate, it flowers when the call of the cuckoo is heard.
123. Sea-Rocket, Cakile maritima, Cress family. A curious little plant found on sandy sea-shores quite close to the highwater mark: the stem, which is usually less than 1 ft. high, is branched, and at the apex of each branch is a spike of fairly large, pale purple flowers: the leaves are cut deeply into lobes, and, as is often the case in seaside plants, are fat and fleshy: the fruit is a little pod, jointed in the middle; when it is ripe the top joint falls off: flowers in summer.
122. Cuckoo-Flower, Lady's Smock.
124. Stork's-bill, Erodium cicutarium, Crane's-bill family. The stem lies along the sandy ground, on which the plant usually grows, and produces pairs of feather-compound leaves: the leaflets are in turn deeply cut into notched segments: the flower-stalks bear little umbels of pale purple flowers: the beaks of the ripe fruits show peculiar twisting movements when drying up, and help to scatter the seeds: flowers in summer and autumn.
125. Valerian, Valeriana officinalis, Valerian family. A handsome plant of stream sides and other damp places: it is readily picked out, even when not in flower, by the appearance of the leaves: they are feather-compound, with lance-shaped serrate leaflets, and in colour a curious greyish green, with a tinge of pink: the pale purple flowers are produced in large umbels at the end of the tall (2 to 4 ft.) stem, in summer: the seeds have little hairy floats.
126. Field Scabious, Scabiosa arvensis, Scabious family. A tall (2 to 3 ft.) plant of the fields and hedges, flowering in late summer: the leaves are lance-shaped and deeply notched, the upper more so than the lower: the flowers are gathered in large, pale purple composite heads.
127. Marsh Violet, Viola palustris, Violet family. In marshes, in spring, may be found the small, pale purple flowers of this little plant: the petals are streaked with lines of darker colour: the leaves are rounded heart-shaped.
128. Willow Herb, Epilobium montanum, Willow herb family. The stem is generally about 1 ft. high: it bears pairs of smooth, broad, lance-shaped, serrate leaves, with quite short stalks: at the apex is a spike of small pale purple flowers with 4 petals, and apparently situated on long stalks, which are in reality the seed-vessels: when ripe these open and set free dozens of tiny seeds, each with a little hairy float, by means of which they may be blown to a considerable distance by the wind: the plant is common but inconspicuous, in dry shady places, where it flowers in summer: it has several close relations, some of which prefer stream sides, and which differ from it in the shape of the leaves and other minor points.
129. Marsh Pennywort, Hydroco-tyle vulgaris, Hemlock family. This member of the hemlock family is strikingly different from all those described under "white" flowers: it is found in marshy places, and has a slender creeping stem: at regular intervals this sends a little bunch of roots into the soil, and 2 to 5 leaves up to the air: the leaves have long stalks joined to the middle of the lower surface, and are circular: amongst the leaves are produced in summer little stalked heads of pale purple flowers.
126. Field Scabious.
127. Marsh Violet.
128. Willow Herb.
129. Marsh Pennywort.
130. Field Madder, Sherardia arvensis, Bed-straw family. A pretty little plant of dry fields, flowering in summer: the stem-is lowly, and much branched: the leaves are lance-shaped, pointed, and occur in whorls of 6: at the tips of the branches are little groups of small, starry, lilac flowers.
131. Butterbur, Petasites officinalis, Daisy family. In April the Butterbur sends up a thick flower-stalk, with a large handsome spike of purplish flower-heads: only when these are over do the leaves appear; they are rounded heart-shaped, with scalloped edges, and, when they have attained their full size, may measure a yard across; the under surface is white with down: not uncommon along stream sides and on marshy ground.
130. Field Madder.
132. Scottish Heather, Ling, Calluna vulgaris, Heath family. Familiar to all is this inhabitant of the dry moors, which so transforms miles of mountain country, when its pale purple flowers appear in late summer: in size it varies from a little shrub a few inches high to a large bush of 2 ft. and more: the leaves are small, almost scale-like, and arranged in 4 rows on the stem: the flowers are in fine terminal spikes: the pure white variety is quite rare, but may be recognised even at a distance by its paler, bright green leaves.
133. Field Gentian, Gentiana campestris, Gentian family. A little plant of dry heaths and grassy places on the hills, flowering in autumn: the stem is usually about 6 ins. high, and often branched: the leaves are in pairs, smooth, and broadly lance-shaped: the flowers are fairly large, tubular, pale lilac, and occur in groups at the tip of the stem. G. Amarella, the Felwort, is distinguished by having 5 petals instead of 4. G. Pneumon-anthe is a much more beautiful English plant, with large deep-blue flowers.
134. Capitate Mint, Mentha aquatica, Dead-nettle family. The stem is about 1½ to 2 ft. high, and bears pairs of hairy, ovate, serrate leaves on short stalks: in the axils of the uppermost leaves are large, dense, globular clusters of small, pale purple flowers, and the tip of the stem is occupied by a similar cluster: the plant is common in damp situations, flowering in late summer: M. arvensis, the Corn Mint, is a smaller plant, common in corn-fields, with the apical cluster wanting. M. Pulegium, the Pennyroyal, is a prostrate, much branched plant, with small leaves, and many clusters of flowers. The mints are all fragrant.
132. Scottish Heather, Ling.
133. Field Gentian.
135. Hemp-Nettle, Galeopsis Tetrahit, Dead-nettle family. A tall (1 to 2 ft.) coarse weed of cultivated land: the branched stem is square, and bears pairs of ovate, serrate leaves with long points: the flowers are small, with a 2-lipped, pale purple corolla, and occur in little clusters in the axils of the upper leaves, in late summer and autumn.
136. Red Dead-Nettie, Lamium purpureum, Dead-nettle family. One of the commonest weeds of gardens and cultivated land: the stem is branched, spreading, and more or less prostrate: the leaves are heart-shaped, with blunt serrations: the flowers, which are pale reddish purple, occur in little clusters in the axils of the leaves, and may be found practically throughout the year.
134. Capitate Mint.
137. Spotted Hand-Orchis, Orchis maculata, Orchis family. A common spring and early summer flower, of moist woods and pastures: the stem is ½ to 1½ ft. high, unbranched, and bears at its tip a thick spike of pale purple flowers: these have short spurs and large lips, which are generally spotted with darker purple: the leaves are long, blunt, fleshy, and spotted with dark brownish purple: if the plant be dug up, it will be found to possess 2 fat tuberous roots, besides several others more fibrous in character.
136. Red Dead-Nettle.
137. Spotted Hand-Orchis.
138. Scented Orchis, Habenaria conopsea, Orchis family.
138. Scented Orchis.
The stem is 9 to 12 ins. high, and bears a spike of lilac-coloured flowers: the flower has a long delicate spur and a small lip: the leaves are long and pointed: the flowers, which appear in early summer, are very fragrant: common on moist heaths and hilly roadsides.