Leaves compound, deeply cut, or lobed.
Leaves quite simple, at most toothed
139. Heartsease, Pansy, Viola tricolor, Violet family. The stem is weak, and rambles in the coarse grass of the pastures and wayside banks, where the plant commonly occurs: the leaves are ovate and bluntly serrate, but as they are provided with very large, deeply cut stipules, the effect is that of a much divided leaf: the flowers are large, and occur singly on long stalks in the leaf axils: the lower petal is spurred: the dominant colour of the flower is deep pure purple, but usually the 3 lower petals are paler, and one may be yellow: flowers from spring to autumn.
140. Bloody Crane's-bill, Geranium sanguineum, Cranes-bill family. A bushy plant, about 1 ft. high, not uncommon on dry cliffs and sandy banks, where it flowers in summer: the leaves are large, stalked, and deeply palm-cut into 7 notched segments: the flowers occur singly on slender stalks in the leaf axils; they are large, brilliant red-purple, and very handsome; the ripe fruits are scattered by the peculiar movement of their beaks, which roll up like watch-springs as they dry.
139. Heartsease, Pansy.
140. Bloody Crane's-bill.
141. Field Crane's-bill, Geranium pratense, Crane's-bill family. The stem is tall (1 to 3 ft.) and much branched: the leaves are large, sessile, and cut into toothed lobes: the flowers are numerous, occur in pairs, and are purple in colour: a common plant of meadows and waysides, flowering in summer.
142. Herb Robert, Geranium Robertianum, Crane's-bill family. The weak, brittle stem is much branched, and bears pairs of stalked leaves: the leaves are compound, with 3 to 5 notched leaflets: the flowers, which occur in pairs on slender stalks, are small and reddish purple in colour: the whole plant is sticky, and has a not unpleasant odour: very common in damp shady places, flowering from spring to autumn.
143. Tufted v etch, Vicia Graccaf Vetch family. A common and striking plant of dry banks and hedgerows: the long weak stem rambles over other plants, aided by the slender-branched tendrils, which occupy the tips of the leaves: the leaves are feather-compound, with stipules: the leaflets, of which there are about 10 pairs, are lance-shaped, and provided with minute, sharp points: from the axils of the upper leaves spring the long flower-stalks, each with a dense tuft of many small, bright bluish-purple flowers: flowers in summer.
141. Field Crane's-bill.
142. Herb Robert.
143. Tufted Vetch.
144. Bush Vetch.
144. Bush Vetch, Vicia septum, Vetch family. Another common plant of banks and hedges: the stem is not so long as that of the Tufted Vetch, and there are only a few flowers in the shortly stalked tufts: the leaves have about 6 pairs of narrowly ovate leaflets, with sharp points, and are provided with stipules and tendrils: the flowers, which are dull purple (rarely white), appear in summer.
145. Tuberous Vetchling, Lathyrus montanus, Vetch family. The stem is slender and prostrate: the leaves have 2 to 3 pairs of narrow elliptical leaflets, are provided with stipules, but are without tendrils, the tip of the leaf being occupied by a short point: the flower stalks, arising in the axils of the leaves, are long and slender, with 3 to 4 flowers: the flowers are rich or sometimes pale purple in colour and appear in summer: the plant has a tuberous root, and is common in heathy woods and pastures, and on moors.
145. Tuberous Vetchling.
146. Hemp-Agrimony, Eupatorium cannabinum, Daisy family. An ancient "simple," this fine plant grows in moist places along stream sides: the stem is 1 to 3 ft. high, with pairs of leaves so deeply cut as to be almost compound: the lobes are 3 to 5 in number, and are serrate: the small flower-heads are massed in a large, flat inflorescence of a dull purple colour: flowers in late summer and autumn.
147. Spear Thistle, Cnicus lanceolatusj Daisy family. The national flower of Scotland is only too common in pastures and waste ground: it owes its wide distribution to the fact that the numerous little fruits are each provided with a very efficient float - the pappus - by means of which the wind can scatter them far and wide: the tall stem is clothed with oblong, jagged, and spiny leaves, and bears several large heads of purple flowers: flowers in late summer and autumn.
148. Marsh Thistle, Cnicus palustris, Daisy family. A less conspicuous plant than the Spear Thistle, but very common in damp places: the stem may be over 3 ft. high, and is clothed with long, deeply cut, and very spiny, dark green leaves: the flower-heads are of medium size, occurring in clusters: flowers purple, appearing in late summer. G, arvensis, the Creeping Thistle, which is similar, but with whitish green leaves and paler flowers, is common on waste ground.
147. Spear Thistle.
148. Marsh Thistle.
149. Knapweed, Centaurea nigra, Daisy family. A common plant in pastures, flowering from June to autumn: the leaves are long, lance-shaped, and the lower ones are deeply notched: the stem is 1 to 2 ft. high, and bears several large heads of deep purple flowers.