A. Leaves compound, deeply cut, or lobed .
B. Leaves quite simple, at most toothed
100. Fumitory, Fumaria officinalis, Fumitory family. A common weed of cultivated land: the stem is low, weak, and much branched, so that the plant has a bushy appearance: the leaves are bright green, and twice compound: the flowers, which are small and gathered in little spikes at the ends of the branches, have a little spur, so that they appear to be fixed sideways on the stalk: the tips of the petals are often darker than the rest of the flower: flowers throughout the summer.
101. Rest-harrow, Ononis repens, Vetch family. The prostrate, branched, and often somewhat woody stem grows along the sand and turf of dunes and similar barren situations: the leaves are compound, with 3 leaflets, and usually the plant is provided with a few spines; the flowers, which occur singly in the leaf-axils, are fairly large, and rose-pink, veined with crimson; they appear throughout summer.
102. Water Avens, Geum rivale, Rose family. Stem is 1 to 1½ ft. high: the leaves are feather-compound, with 1 large terminal leaflet, and several pairs of smaller ones: at the apex of the stem are borne a few flowers: these are large, drooping, and in colour rose, tinged with brown; they open in summer the whole plant is hairy, the fruits are distributed by small animals, to which they become attached by a hooked bristle: a plant of damp meadows.
103. Buckbean, Menyanthes trifoliata, Gentian family. A very beautiful plant of boggy ground: the thick round stem generally lies under water, and gives off the leaves, which have long stalks, and 3 serrate oval leaflets, and the flower-stalk, at the apex of which is a spike of large, pale rose flowers: the inner side of the petals is covered with delicate white hairs: flowers in early summer.
104. Red Rattle, Pedicularis sylvatica, Foxglove family. A little plant (4 to 6 ins.) of moist woods and heaths: the stem branches at the base, and the prostrate branches rise at the tips, holding up short spikes of large rose-coloured flowers: the leaves are deeply cut into many-notched segments: flowers in summer: the Lousewort (P.palustris) is a similar but larger and more erect plant, with brighter flowers, common in bogs.
104. Red Rattle.
105. Maiden Pink.
105. Maiden Pink, Dianthus deltoides, Pink family. A very beautiful but rather rare little plant, of dry turfy ground: the stem is much branched below, and bears many pairs of small, narrow leaves: the flowers are fairly large, of exactly the form of our single garden pinks, bright rose-coloured, with a darker "eye," ana scentless: flowers in summer and autumn.
106. Ragged Robin, Lychnis Flos-cuculi, Pink family. The tall slender stems and spikes of large pink flowers of this plant are common and beautiful objects on marshy ground: the leaves occur in pairs, and are lance-shaped, the lower ones narrowed towards the base: the edges of the petals are cut into a fringe, giving the flower its "ragged " appearance: the stem is sticky: flowers in early summer.
107. Cat's-foot, Mountain Everlasting, Antennaria dioica, Daisy family. The little creeping stem bears many small oval leaves, broadest towards the tip, shiny above, and silvery with hairs on the lower surface: from it arises a simple flowering stem, about 4 to 6 ins. high, with 4 to 5 small flower-heads, pale rose or white in colour: common on heaths, flowering in summer.
106. Ragged Robin.
107. Cat's-Foob, Mountain Everlasting.
108. Cross-leaved Heath, Erica Tetralix, Heath family. A common plant of boggy heaths, flowering in late summer and autumn: it is most readily distinguished from the other common heaths by its drooping cluster of large, egg-shaped, pale rose flowers: the stem is 6 to 8 ins. high, and bears many whorls of 4 small, narrow, hairy leaves, and at its apex the drooping cluster of flowers.
109. Thrift, Sea-daisy, Statice maritima, Thrift family. A common plant of grassy slopes and clefts of rocks near the sea: the woody stock gives rise to a tuft of grass-like but rather fleshy leaves, and to one or more flower-stalks: the flower-stalk is 6 to 8 ins. high, and bears a single globular head of rose flowers: flowers from spring to autumn.
110. Centaury, Erythroea Centaurium, Gentian family. The stem is about a foot high, and is square, bearing pairs of smooth elliptical leaves: towards the apex it is slightly branched, and has a large, flat brush of bright rose-coloured flowers, individually small, but making a handsome show in the mass: flowers in late summer, and not uncommon on dry waste ground and pastures: E. littoralis is a similar, but smaller and rarer plant, growing by the sea.
111. Bindweed, Convolvulus arvensis, Bindweed family. The stem is slender, and twines through grass and hedges: the leaves are halbert-sbaped and stalked: the flowers are large, shaped like an open bell, in colour white, variegated with pink: flowers in summer. G. sepium, the Great Bindweed, has very large white flowers and arrow-shaped leaves: C. Soldanella, the Sea Bindweed, is less common: it has fleshy, kidney-shaped leaves and handsome pink and yellow flowers.
108. Cross-leaved Heath.
109. Thrift, Sea-Daisy.
112. Knot-Grass, Polygonum aviculare, Dock family. A very common weed of cultivated and waste ground: the long, branched, creeping stems bear many small elliptical leaves, each with a membranous sheath at the base: in the axils of the leaves are little groups of small pink flowers, tinged with green: flowers from spring to autumn.
113. Spotted Persicaria, Polygonum Persicaria, Dock family. A common weed of cultivated land: the stem is about 1 ft. high and generally somewhat prostrate: the leaves are fairly-large, lance-shaped, provided with a fringed sheath, smooth, dark green, and often spotted with dark brownish purple: the flowers are arranged in close spikes, in the leaf axils and at the apex of the stem; they are pale rose-coloured, appearing in summer and autumn.
113. Spotted Persicaria.
114. Amphibious Persicaria, Polygonum amphibium, Dock family. This plant is an inhabitant of ponds and ditches, and according as it grows actually in the water or only along the water's edge, it produces different types of leaves: in the water the leaves are oblong, dark glossy green, and unwettable, so that they float on the surface: on land they are lance-shaped, lighter green, and slightly hairy: the flowers are pale rose, and gathered in close terminal spikes; they appear in late summer and autumn.
114. Amphibious Persicaria.
115. Water-Plantain, Alisma Plan-tago-aquatica, Water-Plantain family. A plant of the boggy margins of ponds and lakes, flowering in late summer: the tall, slender stem bears a large, loose brush of small, pale rose-flowers: the leaves are large, ovate or lance-shaped, with long stalks, but any growing under water are quite narrow.
116. Flowering-Rush, Butomus umbel-latus, Water-Plantain family. A very beautiful inhabitant of the margins of ponds and slow streams: the stem is short, horizontal, and roots in the mud: it sends up a number of long, narrow leaves, and in summer a tall flowering-stem (2 to 3 ft.), with a single, terminal umbel of large rose-flowers.