22. Shepherd's Purse, Capsella Bursa-pastoris, Cress family. Perhaps the commonest of our weeds, found in fields, gardens, roadsides, and woods, flowering almost all the year round: from the rosette of more or less deeply feather-cut leaves springs a stalk about 1 ft. high, with a spike of inconspicuous white flowers: the plant is most readily recognised by its fruits, which are little heart-shaped pouches with the notch turned outwards.
22. Shepherd's Purse.
23. Wood Sorrel.
23. Wood Sorrel, Oxalis Acetosella, Wood Sorrel family. One of the prettiest of our woodland plants: there is a knotty underground stem, from the apex of which arise the slender leaf-stalks, each with a leaf composed of three heart-shaped leaflets, the base of the heart being turned away from the stalk: among the leaves there appear in early summer one or two flower-stalks, each with a delicate, drooping, bell-like flower, the white petals of which are veined with purple: the leaves, which are occasionally used as a salad, have a pleasant acid flavour.
24. Dutch Clover, Trifolium repens, Vetch family. The stem is more or less prostrate, and gives off leaves on long stalks; these are divided into three serrate leaflets, and possess ovate stipules; the flower stalks are longer than the leaves, in the axils of which they grow, and bear heads of cream-coloured flowers, which turn brown with age: the flowers have a fine aroma, and are much visited by bees for their honey: common in pastures and meadows, flowering throughout summer and autumn.
24. Dutch Clover.
25. Meadow-Sweet, Spiraea Ulmaria, Rose family. The u Queen-of-the-Meadow" is frequent in meadows and on riverbanks: the tall (2 to 3 ft.) stem bears handsome spikes, composed of many cream-coloured flowers, and large feather-compound leaves, with alternate pairs of large and small, serrate leaflets: stem and leaves alike have a reddish tinge: flowers throughout summer: very fragrant.
26. Great Bed-straw.
26. Great Bed-straw, Galium Mollugo, Bed-straw family. The stem is long, branched, and scrambling amongst grass and bushes: it bears small, narrow leaves in whorls of 6 to 8: in a large, loose, much-branched terminal brush: flowers in late summer.
27. Stone Bed-straw, Galium Saxatile, Bed-straw family. A small plant creeping amongst rocks and on short turf: the stem is branched, and has whorls of about 6 small, sharply-pointed leaves: the small white flowers are grouped in loose, branched clusters at the ends of the flowering stems: flowers in late summer.
27. Stone Bed-straw.
28. Goose-grass, Cleavers, Galium Aparine, Bed-straw family. The long weak stems scramble in thickets: they bear whorls of 6 to 8 leaves, in the axils of which may grow little clusters of small, yellowish-white flowers: the whole plant, especially the fruits, is clad with hooked bristles: these enable the plant to scramble the more securely, and the fruits to hang on to passing animals, and so become dispersed: flowers in summer.
29. Woodruff, Asperula odorata, Bedstraw family. The erect stem is ½ to 1 ft. high, with whorls of about 6 to 8 stiff lance-shaped leaves: the small white flowers are gathered in loose terminal groups: the plant is very fragrant, especially when dry: common in woods, flowering in early summer.
30. Thyme-leaved Speedwell, Veronica serpyllifolia, Fox-glove family. This little plant is a common weed in gardens, woods, and roadsides: the branched stem lies along the ground, and has pairs of smooth, oval leaves; the terminal portion of each branch is, however, erect, and bears a single spike of flowers; the flowers, which are small and white, with delicate blue veins, appear throughout summer.
31. Eye-bright, Euphrasia officinalis, Foxglove family. A very variable little plant, common on heaths and pastures, where it flowers in summer: it may range from 1 to 8 'ins. in height, the stem being simple or slightly branched, and bearing pairs of ovate, serrate, sessile leaves: the flowers form a short, terminal spike: in colour they may be white, white veined with purple, or completely purple.
30. Thyme-leaved Speedwell.
32. Wood-sage, Teucrium Scorodonia, Dead-nettle family. The stem is square and about 1 ft. high, with pairs of wrinkled, ovate or heart-shaped leaves, the margins of which are bluntly serrate: the flowers are rather small, tubular, dirty-white in colour, and occur in two or three terminal spikes: the plant, which has an aromatic smell if crushed, flowers in late summer, and is common in dry woods and on banks.
33. Spring Whitlow-grass, Erophila vernat Cress family. This pretty little plant occurs in patches on walls and bare, dry banks, and in spring speckles them with the white of its starry flowers: the flower-stalks rise from a rosette of lance-shaped, toothed leaves, and are either simple with one or two flowers, or may carry several little spikes: each petal is deeply divided into two lobes: the plant is usually less than 2 ins. high, but may sometimes reach a height of about 4 ins.
34. Scurvy-grass, Cochlearia officinalis, Cress family. A plant of the sea-coast, flowering on grassy slopes, and in crevices of the cliffs, in spring and summer: the leaves are smooth and rather fleshy, those at the base of the stem being more or less heart-shaped, while the leaves of the flowering stems have no stalks, and tend to be arrow-shaped: the flowers occur in dense spikes: the plant was formerly used as a cure for and preventive of scurvy by whalers and Arctic travellers.
33. Spring Whitlow-grass.