22. Shepherd's Purse, Capsella Bursa-pastoris, Cress family. Perhaps the commonest of our weeds, found in fields, gardens, roadsides, and woods, flowering almost all the year round: from the rosette of more or less deeply feather-cut leaves springs a stalk about 1 ft. high, with a spike of inconspicuous white flowers: the plant is most readily recognised by its fruits, which are little heart-shaped pouches with the notch turned outwards.

22. Shepherd's Purse.

22. Shepherd's Purse.

23. Wood Sorrel.

23. Wood Sorrel.

23. Wood Sorrel, Oxalis Acetosella, Wood Sorrel family. One of the prettiest of our woodland plants: there is a knotty underground stem, from the apex of which arise the slender leaf-stalks, each with a leaf composed of three heart-shaped leaflets, the base of the heart being turned away from the stalk: among the leaves there appear in early summer one or two flower-stalks, each with a delicate, drooping, bell-like flower, the white petals of which are veined with purple: the leaves, which are occasionally used as a salad, have a pleasant acid flavour.

24. Dutch Clover, Trifolium repens, Vetch family. The stem is more or less prostrate, and gives off leaves on long stalks; these are divided into three serrate leaflets, and possess ovate stipules; the flower stalks are longer than the leaves, in the axils of which they grow, and bear heads of cream-coloured flowers, which turn brown with age: the flowers have a fine aroma, and are much visited by bees for their honey: common in pastures and meadows, flowering throughout summer and autumn.

24. Dutch Clover.

24. Dutch Clover.

25. Meadow-Sweet, Spiraea Ulmaria, Rose family. The u Queen-of-the-Meadow" is frequent in meadows and on riverbanks: the tall (2 to 3 ft.) stem bears handsome spikes, composed of many cream-coloured flowers, and large feather-compound leaves, with alternate pairs of large and small, serrate leaflets: stem and leaves alike have a reddish tinge: flowers throughout summer: very fragrant.

25. Meadow Sweet

25. Meadow-Sweet.

26. Great Bed straw.

26. Great Bed-straw.

26. Great Bed-straw, Galium Mollugo, Bed-straw family. The stem is long, branched, and scrambling amongst grass and bushes: it bears small, narrow leaves in whorls of 6 to 8: in a large, loose, much-branched terminal brush: flowers in late summer.

27. Stone Bed-straw, Galium Saxatile, Bed-straw family. A small plant creeping amongst rocks and on short turf: the stem is branched, and has whorls of about 6 small, sharply-pointed leaves: the small white flowers are grouped in loose, branched clusters at the ends of the flowering stems: flowers in late summer.

27. Stone Bed straw.

27. Stone Bed-straw.

28. Goose-grass, Cleavers, Galium Aparine, Bed-straw family. The long weak stems scramble in thickets: they bear whorls of 6 to 8 leaves, in the axils of which may grow little clusters of small, yellowish-white flowers: the whole plant, especially the fruits, is clad with hooked bristles: these enable the plant to scramble the more securely, and the fruits to hang on to passing animals, and so become dispersed: flowers in summer.

28. Goose grass.

28. Goose-grass.

29. Woodruff.

29. Woodruff.

29. Woodruff, Asperula odorata, Bedstraw family. The erect stem is to 1 ft. high, with whorls of about 6 to 8 stiff lance-shaped leaves: the small white flowers are gathered in loose terminal groups: the plant is very fragrant, especially when dry: common in woods, flowering in early summer.

30. Thyme-leaved Speedwell, Veronica serpyllifolia, Fox-glove family. This little plant is a common weed in gardens, woods, and roadsides: the branched stem lies along the ground, and has pairs of smooth, oval leaves; the terminal portion of each branch is, however, erect, and bears a single spike of flowers; the flowers, which are small and white, with delicate blue veins, appear throughout summer.

31. Eye-bright, Euphrasia officinalis, Foxglove family. A very variable little plant, common on heaths and pastures, where it flowers in summer: it may range from 1 to 8 'ins. in height, the stem being simple or slightly branched, and bearing pairs of ovate, serrate, sessile leaves: the flowers form a short, terminal spike: in colour they may be white, white veined with purple, or completely purple.

30. Thyme leaved Speedwell.

30. Thyme-leaved Speedwell.

32. Wood-sage, Teucrium Scorodonia, Dead-nettle family. The stem is square and about 1 ft. high, with pairs of wrinkled, ovate or heart-shaped leaves, the margins of which are bluntly serrate: the flowers are rather small, tubular, dirty-white in colour, and occur in two or three terminal spikes: the plant, which has an aromatic smell if crushed, flowers in late summer, and is common in dry woods and on banks.

81. Eye bright.

81. Eye-bright.

32. Wood sage.

32. Wood-sage.

33. Spring Whitlow-grass, Erophila vernat Cress family. This pretty little plant occurs in patches on walls and bare, dry banks, and in spring speckles them with the white of its starry flowers: the flower-stalks rise from a rosette of lance-shaped, toothed leaves, and are either simple with one or two flowers, or may carry several little spikes: each petal is deeply divided into two lobes: the plant is usually less than 2 ins. high, but may sometimes reach a height of about 4 ins.

34. Scurvy-grass, Cochlearia officinalis, Cress family. A plant of the sea-coast, flowering on grassy slopes, and in crevices of the cliffs, in spring and summer: the leaves are smooth and rather fleshy, those at the base of the stem being more or less heart-shaped, while the leaves of the flowering stems have no stalks, and tend to be arrow-shaped: the flowers occur in dense spikes: the plant was formerly used as a cure for and preventive of scurvy by whalers and Arctic travellers.

33. Spring Whitlow grass.

33. Spring Whitlow-grass.