35. Jack-by-the-Hedge, Sauce-alone, Sisymbrium A Maria, Cress family. A tall plant (1 to 3 ft.) of hedges and damp woods: the stem is slender, with large, thin, light-green leaves, the upper heart-shaped and coarsely toothed, the lower more rounded: the small flowers are gathered in short spikes, and appear in early summer: the plant smells of garlic when crushed.
36. Pepperwort, Lepidium Smithii, Cress family. A common weed of dry banks, flowering in summer: the stem is ½ to 1 ft, high, and is closely clad with arrow-shaped, sessile leaves: the lower leaves are narrowed into a stalk: the flowers are small and gathered in short thick spikes: the fruit is an ovate pouch with an apical notch: the plant is rough with hairs.
37. Penny-Cress, Thlaspi arvense, Cress family. The stem, which is about 1 ft. high, is loosely clad with arrow-shaped leaves: the small white flowers are gathered in loose spikes: the most notable feature is the fruit, which gives the plant its name; it is a large disc-shaped pouch, with the centre swollen, and with an apical notch: a common field weed, flowering in summer.
38. Grass of Parnassus, Pamassia palustris, Saxifrage family. A very beautiful and not uncommon bog plant, flowering in autumn: it has a rosette of stalked heart-shaped leaves, from which rise the flowering stems: the leaves on the stems are sessile: the flowers are large and creamy white: the plant is about 3/4 ft. high, and is quite smooth.
39. Sundew, Drosera rotundifolia, Sundew family. A little bog plant, readily recognised by its rosette of round, stalked leaves, which are covered with small, red tentacles, and have a glistening appearance, as if spangled with dew: any insect which lights on the leaf is held by a sticky fluid, and the tentacles close over it, pouring on to it a digestive liquid, which enables the plant to absorb the nutritious part of its prey: the Sundew is thus insectivorous: the small, whitish flowers are born in little clusters on stalks, rising from the rosette in late summer.
38. Grass of Parnassus.
40. Chickweed Wintergreen, Trientalis europaea, Primrose family. The stem is about 4 ins. high, and bears a single whorl of pointed leaves, oval in shape, but broadest towards the tip: from this spring several delicate flower-stalks, each with a fairly large, white, star-like flower: the plant is a very beautiful, but by no means common inhabitant of northern woods, flowering in early summer.
41. Comfrey, Symphytum officinale. Forget-me-not family. A tall (1 to 2 ft.) coarse plant, common in damp, shady places: the large lance-shaped leaves are continued down the stem in the form of prominent ridges: the flowers occur in small, drooping clusters in the leaf-axils: they are bell-shaped, usually white, but sometimes purple, and appear in early summer: the whole plant is very rough with hairs.
40. Chickweed Wintergreen.
42. Ramsons, Wild Garlic.
42. Ramsons, Wild Garlic, A Ilium ursinum, Hyacinth family. From the subterranean bulb arise two large, soft, oval, pointed leaves, and a long triangular flower-stalk, which bears a single umbel of large white flowers; below these are two membranous leaves: the whole plant gives off a smell of garlic if crushed: it is fairly common in damp woods, often occurring in large patches: flowers in early summer.
43. Water-Lily, Castalia alba, Water-lily family. The most striking of our water plants: the large white flowers appear on the surface of the water in August: it is of interest to note that the petals pass gradually into the stamens: the seeds are liberated only when the fruit rots away: the leaves are large, floating, and rounded heart-shaped.
44. Mouse-ear, Cerastium vulgatum, Pink family. An insignificant little weed of the garden, the field, and the roadside: the branches of the stem are mostly prostrate, but some rise from the ground, and these bear groups of small white flowers, the petals of which are almost hidden within the calyx: the leaves are in pairs, lance-shaped, and, like the whole plant, more or less downy: flowers almost the whole year through.
45. Chickweed, Stellaria media, Pink family. A common garden weed: the stem is much branched, and often reaches a considerable length, trailing on the ground: the leaves are in pairs, ovate and bright green: the flowers occur singly in the leaf axils, as well as in little groups at the tips of the stems; they are small, and the petals, which are hidden in the calyx, are cleft in two almost to the base: flowers throughout the year.
46. Greater Stitchwort.
46. Greater Stitchwort, Stellaria Holostea, Pink family. A handsome, early summer plant: the weak stems, about 1 to 2 ft. long, generally grow in the rough grass of hedges and banks, which supports them: the leaves are in pairs, lance-shaped, drawn out, and rough; flowers large, white, in terminal groups: the Lesser Stitchwort is a more slender plant flowering in summer: the Marsh Stitch' wort is found in wet places, and has quite small flowers.
47. Pearlwort, Sagina nodosa, Pink family. The stems occur in a group, are at first prostrate, and then rise to a height of 3 to 4 ins., bearing each 1 to 3 flowers: the flowers are large, delicate, and white: the leaves are short and narrow, and occur 2 to 4 together on the stems: a fresh little plant, common in moist places, flowering in summer: it has one or two similar relatives, with inconspicuous flowers having only 4 stamens, furrow along its lower face: the flowers are of medium size, and are gathered in loose, leafless spikes at the end of the stems; when the fruit is formed the flower-stalks bend downwards: a common weed of cultivated land, flowering in summer, and emitting an evil stench, especially when wet with dew or rain: it occurs in two varieties, the commoner of which has frequently fewer stamens - often only 5.
48. Spurrey, Spergula arvensis. Pink family. The stem is about 1 ft. high, with whorls of long narrow leaves, each with a
49. Wintergreen, Pyrola minor, Heath family. The stem is prostrate for a short distance, and bears several rounded oval leaves, then it bends sharply upwards, and ends in a slender spike of drooping flowers, almost globular in shape, and in colour white, with a shade of pink: a pretty summer flower, found in woods and heaths.
50. Arrowhead, Sagittaria sagittifolia, Water-plantain family. A plant of English ditches and rivers: the leaves rise from the water on long stalks, and are arrow-shaped: in the centre of these is the tall flower-stalk, with a spike of large, white flowers, some of which have only stamens, and others only seed-vessels: many leaves remain submerged, and these possess only long narrow stalks without blades: flowers in August.