Flowers grouped in Composite Heads
Flowers grouped in Umbels .
Flowers grouped otherwise, or occurring singly
A. Leaves compound, deeply cut, or lobed
B. Leaves quite simple, at most toothed
a. Stamens absent .
b. Stamens 2-4 in number
c. Stamens 5-7 in number
d. Stamens 8 or more in number
1. Daisy, Bellis perennis, Daisy family. The short horizontal underground stem bears rosettes of leaves, which are oval in shape, tapering to the base, and irregularly toothed: from among these arise several flower-stalks, each a few inches high and with a single flower-head: the disc is yellow, the ray white with pink tips: perhaps the commonest of our wild flowers, to be seen during the greater part of the year in grassy places: the flower-heads are very sensitive, closing in darkness and wet weather.
1. Common Daisy.
2. Millefoil, Yarrow, Achillea Millefolium, Daisy family. A common and very pretty plant of meadows and pastures:
15 the leaves are 3 to 4 ins. long and lance-shaped in outline, but they are deeply lobed, and the lobes are cut into fine segments, so that the leaf has a dainty feather-like appearance: the stem is about 1 ft. high, and bears a flat head of small flower-heads: flowers in summer.
3. Sneeze wort.
3. Sneeze wort, Achillea Ptarmica, Daisy family. Like the preceding species, this is one of our common summer meadow plants: the flower-heads are somewhat larger but are gathered into the same flat inflorescence: the stem is 1 to 2 ft. high, and bears narrow lance-shaped leaves, with serrate margins, and a shiny surface.
4. Ox-eye, Chrysanthemum Leucanthe-mum, Daisy family. In hay-fields in summer the large flower-heads of the Ox-eye, with their broad white rays and yellow discs, are frequently abundant: the stem is 1 to 2 ft. high and bears only a few flower-heads: the leaves are dark green, glossy, serrate, and narrow towards the base. The Feverfew, a related species with numerous smaller heads, and compound leaves having lobed ovate leaflets, is found on waste ground.
5. Mayweed, Matricaria inodora,Daisy family. A common weed in fields and waste places, flowering in late summer and autumn: the stem is about 1 ft. high and may be branched: the leaves are twice cut and the segments are very narrow, almost hair-like: the flower-heads are few in number, fairly large, with white ray and yellow disc: the plant has a scent resembling, but not so strong as, that of the related Chamomile.
6. Hemlock, Conium maculatum, Hemlock family. A plant of hedgerows and waste places: it is easily recognised by the fact that the stem (3 to 5 ft. high) is spotted with dull purple, and by its mouse-like smell: the whole plant is smooth, with a slight bloom: the leaves are large and doubly feather-compound: the secondary leaflets are deeply notched: the large white umbels are to be seen in summer: the plant is highly poisonous.
7. Gout-weed, Bishop's-weed, ∆gopodium podagraria, Hemlock family. The leaves of this plant often cover considerable areas in damp shady places, and it is frequently an annoying garden weed: the leaves are large and divided into three leaflets, each of which is again divided into three leaflets, these being ovate, serrate, and glossy-green: from among the leaves rises the flower stem, about 1 to 2 ft. high, with several smallish umbels of yellowish-white flowers: flowers in summer.
8. Burnet-Saxifrage, Pmqrinella Saxifraga, Hemlock family. A common plant of pasture-land, flowering in autumn: from the base of the stem spring a few feather-compound leaves, with ovate, notched leaflets: the stem (1 to 2 ft, high) looks bare, as its few leaves are divided into narrow, notched segments; the stem bears several small umbels, which are white or tinged with red.
9. Pig-nut, Conopodium denudatum, Hemlock family. The root is a single tuber which lies about 6 ins. underground, and is frequently dug up and eaten by children: the stem is slender, especially below, and about 1 ft. high, with a few rather small umbels: the leaves are doubly feather-compound, and the leaflets deeply notched, giving the plant a very graceful appearance: flowers in early summer.
10. Sweet Cicely.
11. Shepherd's Needle.
10. Sweet Cicely, Myrrhis Odorata, Hemlock family. The Myrrh of country children is fairly common on pastures and damp waste ground: it is a tall (3 ft.) handsome plant with large doubly or triply feather-compound leaves: the whole plant is soft with fine hairs: the umbels are large and cream-coloured: the fruits, as well as the leaves and stem, are aromatic and are eaten by children because of their pleasant flavour: flowers in early summer.
12. Wild Chervil.
11. Shepherd's Needle, Scandix Peden-Veneris, Hemlock family. The English name of this plant of the fields refers to the long (2 ins.) slender needle-like fruits, which are very striking after the flower has fallen: the stem is about 1 ft. high with long triply feather-compound, light green leaves, the segments of which are very narrow: the small umbels occur one or two together: flowers summer.