62. Hawkbit, Leontodon autumnalis, Daisy family. Closely resembles the Cat's-ear, but may be distinguished from it by the pappus, which rests on the fruit, and by the fact that the leaves are narrower, more deeply cut, and not so hairy: found in pastures and waste ground, flowering all summer.
63. Dandelion, Taraxacum officinale, Daisy family. The leaves of this familiar meadow and roadside plant are long, pointed, bright glossy green, and have large teeth pointing backwards: they are arranged in a rosette from which spring the hollow flower-stalks, each with its single, large, bright yellow head: as conspicuous as the flower-head is the fruiting-head, which succeeds it: each little seed-like fruit is provided with an umbrella-like pappus, and the whole head - the material of a familiar game in every country - is a dainty ball of plumes.
64. Sowthistle, Sonchus olcraceus, Daisy family. A tall, coarse plant, with a thick, somewhat branched stem: little bunches of the large, bright yellow flower-heads are borne about the tips of the branches: the leaves and stem have a strikingly glossy, dark-green appearance: the upper leaves are arrow-shaped, sharply toothed, and clasp the stem: the lower leaves may be lobed: flowers in summer, being abundant on waste ground. 65. Goat's-beard, Jack-go-to-bed-at-noon, Tragopogon pratense, Daisy family. The leaves are long, narrow, and sharply pointed: the stem is about 18 ins. high, and is branched: at the tips of the branches are borne the large, yellow flower-heads, which only open in the early morning, closing about eleven o'clock: the pappus (see Hypochaeris) is very conspicuous, and is borne on the end of a long beak: common in pastures, flowering in June.
65. Goat's-beard, Jack-go-to-bed-at-Neon.
66. Upright Crowfoot, Buttercup, Ranunculus acris, Crowfoot family. The bright yellow flowers of the Buttercup are familiar in all meadows: they appear in summer on stems 1 to 2 ft, high: most of the leaves grow on long stalks from near the root: they are hairy and deeply palm-divided, the segments being also cut: the flower-stalks are not furrowed.
66. Upright Crowfoot, Buttercup.
67. Greater Celandine.
There are several related species which are quite common: the Creeping Crowfoot with a furrowed flower-stalk, and sending out runners: the Bulbous Crowfoot with the sepals bent sharply back, and the base of the stem much swollen: Goldilocks, common in woods, distinguished from the others by the fact that there is no little scale inside the petals at their base: the Corn Crow-foot in corn-fields with spiny seed-vessels.
67. Greater Celandine, Chelidonium majus, Poppy family. The stem is tall, branched, and leafy: the leaves are fairly large and deeply lobed: the flowers are small, and the fruits long and pod-like: the plant is common in shady waste places, and is peculiar in possessing a thick juice, which is bright orange in colour: flowers in summer.
68. Yellow Rocket, Barbarea vulgaris, Cress family. The stem is 1 to 2 ft. high, and may be slightly branched: the leaves are feather-lobed, lyre-shaped, and dark, glossy green: the flowers are small, yellow, and borne in crowded spikes at the ends of the branches; the fruits are long slender pods containing many-seeds: a common weed of waste places and cultivated fields, flowering throughout summer.
68. Yellow Rocket.
69. Charlock, Brassica arvensis, Cress family. This "wild mustard" is an exceedingly common weed in corn-fields: it flowers in summer, when the corn is still green, and sometimes turns whole fields into a mass of gold: the stem is about 1½ ft. high: the upper leaves are ovate, notched, and sessile; the lower have stalks and are feather-lobed: the flowers occur in terminal spikes: the pods are knotty.
70. Mignonette, Reseda lutea, Mignonette family. The wild Mignonette is not unlike the garden sort, but it is odourless: the stem is taller, and the flowers are yellow with a greenish tinge: they are borne in spikes at the end of the leafy stem: the leaves are much cut, and are smooth: the seed-vessel is peculiar as it is always open: the Weld is a close relative; it is a taller, coarser plant with green flowers; both plants are common on waste ground, flowering in summer. 71. Black Medick, Medicago lupulina. Pea family. Many tiny yellow flowers are gathered in little oval heads, borne on short stalks along the stem: the leaves have 3 leaflets, which are toothed: stipules small, toothed: the fruit is a little, curved pod, green at first, then black: the teeth of the calyx are equal in length: the plant is quite small, and trails along the ground: common on waste ground, flowering throughout the summer.
71. Black Medick.
72. Melilot, Melilotus officinalis, Pea family. The stems are erect 2 to 3 ft. high: the leaves have 3 elliptical, serrate leaflets, and small, sharply-pointed stipules: the flowers are small, and borne in long slender spikes, in the leaf axils, on the upper part of the stems: the plant is common in dry pastures, flowering in summer: it has a delightful, sweet, aromatic odour, especially when dry, and is used in flavouring gruyere cheese.