73. Hop Trefoil, Trifolium procum-hens, Pea family. The flowers are crowded into little stalked heads of about 40: the leaves have 3 leaflets: the stem is trailing: 2 of the calyx teeth are much shorter than the other 3: the stipules are entire: common about roadsides and other dry places, flowering in summer: the Lesser Trefoil is a smaller species with only about a dozen flowers in the heads, and resembles the Medick, from which it may be distinguished by the character of the pod, which remains hidden within the withered corolla.
74. Lady's Finger, Kidney Vetch, Anthyllis Vulneraria, Pea family. Several short (6 to 12 ins.) stems rise close together from the root: the feather-compound leaves have 7 to 11 leaflets, and are soft with hairs: the pale-yellow flowers are gathered in heads, 2 heads always standing together at the tip of a branch: common on dry banks, flowering in summer: the leaves were formerly used for dressing wounds.
75. Bird's-foot Trefoil, Lotus corniculatus, Pea family. Another creeping plant, with orange-yellow flowers gathered in heads: the flowers are, however, large, and only 5 to 10 occur in a head: the stalk which bears the head is long and slender: the pod is long and narrow: the leaves have 3 leaflets, but appear to have 5, because the stipules are large and resemble leaflets: the leaflets are sharply pointed: the plant is common in dry pastures, flowers in summer, and has a pleasant odour.
73. Hop Trefoil.
76. Meadow Vetchling, Lathyrus pratensis, Pea family. The stem may be a yard long, and rambles over the banks on which the plant grows: the leaves have 2 lance-shaped leaflets, and 2 fairly large stipules: the tip of the leaf is converted into a delicate branched tendril, which aids the plant in climbing: the flowers occur several together in loose heads, borne on long stalks, in the leaf axils: flowers in late summer.
77. Wood Avens, Geum urbanum, Rose family. The stem is about 2 ft. high, and is branched: the small yellow flowers occur singly about the tips of the branches: the leaves are lyre-shaped; leaflets serrate; stipules prominent. The little seed-like fruit, when ripe, is provided with a hooked spine, by which it becomes attached to passing animals, and is carried off to a new situation: it is common in woods and thickets, flowering in summer.
74. Lady's Finger, Kidney Vetch.
75. Bird's-foot Trefoil.
78. Tormentil, Potentilla sylvestris, Rose family. The stem is trailing, and arises from a woody stock: the leaves are palm-compound, the upper sessile, the lower stalked; leaflets serrate; stipules prominent: the flowers are small, with slender stalks, and stand singly in the leaf axils: common on dry banks, flowering in summer: the woody stock has been used in medicine, and for dyeing.
79. Silver-weed, Potentilla Anserina, Rose family. The stem is creeping, and bears leather-compound leaves, with many serrate leaflets; these are not all of one size, smaller alternate with larger: the leaves are of a silvery white colour beneath: the flowers are large, and occur singly: the plant is a common weed of roadsides, flowering in early summer: the root is used as food by swine.
76. Meadow Vetchling.
77. Wood Avens.
80. Agrimony, Agrimonia Eupatoria, Rose family. The stem is erect and of medium height: the feather-compound leaves have about 7 large leaflets, and a number of intermediate small ones: leaflets are sharply serrate and hairy: the flowers are small, and pale yellow, and are borne on a long slender terminal spike: the plant grows on dry sunny banks and fields, and flowers in summer: formerly used for medicinal purposes. A. odorata, a similar plant with a fragrant odour, is much rarer.
81. Crosswort, Galium cruciata, Bed-straw family. The stem is 1 to 2 ft. long, and is somewhat weak, so that the plant tends to trail in the coarse grass or bushes amongst which it grows: the leaves are numerous, and are arranged in whorls of 4; they are oval and hairy: in the axils of the upper whorls are groups of flowers: the flower is small, pale yellow, and shaped like a four-rayed star: flowers in spring and early summer numerous, and occur in whorls of about 8: they are very narrow, needle-shaped, and dark, glossy green: the flowers are like those of the Crosswort, but are bright yellow, and occur in a conspicuous, crowded brush at the end of the stem, giving the plant a striking appearance on the dry banks and turfy places, where it flowers in summer.
82. Yellow Bed-straw, Galium verum, Bed-straw family. The stem is erect, about 1 to l½ ft. high: the leaves are