Flowers grouped in Composite Heads ..
Flowers grouped otherwise or occurring singly .
A. Leaves compound, deeply cut, or lobed .
B. Leaves quite simple, at most toothed
a. Stamens absent, or 3-4 in number
b. Stamens 5-6 in number
c. Stamens more than 6 in number .
51. Golden-rod, Solidago Virgaurea, Daisy family. The leaves are lance-shaped with serrate edges, dark green in colour, and borne on the angular branched stem: flower-heads small but numerous and gathered into a handsome, yellow, brush-like inflorescence: the plant is medium-sized, 1 to 2 ft. high, and inclined to be bushy: it grows in thickets, flowering in late summer: the leaves were formerly much used for dressing wounds: foreign species are cultivated as the Golden-rods of the garden.
52. Corn-Marigold, Chrysanthemum segetum, Daisy family. The leaves are very smooth, and bright green, oblong in shape, but deeply notched: flower-heads large, with a conspicuous ray, and occurring singly: the plant is small, about 1 ft. nigh, and slightly branched: it occurs in corn-fields, where it flowers from June to August: not originally a native in Britain, but now completely at home.
53. Tansy, Tanacetum vulgare, Daisy family. The leaf is deeply feather-cut into slender segments; these are again divided, and the segments so formed are serrate; in consequence the whole leaf has a feathery appearance. The flower-heads are small, button-like, and have no ray: they occur in large, flat, umbellike inflorescences: the plant is 2 to 3 ft. high, and has a handsome appearance: it grows about roadsides and river-banks, and is cultivated in old gardens for the sake of its strong aroma.
Tansy Tea, made from the leaves, was formerly a much used medicine.
54. Coltsfoot, Tussilago Farfara, Daisy family. This plant possesses an underground stem, which lives through the winter, and in March sends up a short stalk, clothed with small, pointed, reddish scales, with a single large, bright yellow flower-head: in early spring these are conspicuous and beautiful along roads, railways, and field-sides: the leaves only appear when the flower is over: they are large, roundish heart-shaped, with toothed margins: the under surface is covered with a white down: the leaf is still used as a substitute for tobacco, and is supposed to be a cure for colds.
55. Groundsel, Senecio vulgaris, Daisy family. The leaves are smooth and sometimes woolly, cut into blunt, toothed lobes: the flower-heads are small, somewhat egg-shaped, without a ray, and occur a few together at the apex of the stem: the plant is a weed of cultivated land, and particularly of gardens: its only use is as a food for canaries: Senecio sylvaticus is a very similar plant, growing by roadsides: it may be distinguished by its sticky stem, woolly leaves, and by its disagreeable smell. 56. Ragwort, Senecio Jacobaea, Daisy family. A tall, coarse plant which grows on commons and pastures: it is sometimes called the Tansy, but is readily distinguished from that plant: it has no aroma: its flower-heads have a distinct ray, and are gathered into a large and conspicuous head: the leaves are deeply cut into toothed lobes, but have not the feathery appearance of those of Tanacetum: a handsome plant, but an annoying weed: S. aquaticus is a similar plant which grows in boggy situations.
57. Nipplewort, Lapsana communis, Daisy family. The lower leaves are lyre-shaped, with one large, ovate terminal lobe and several pairs of smaller lobes: the stem is slender, about 2 ft. high, branched, and stem and leaves are slightly hairy: the flower-heads are small and gathered into a loose terminal inflorescence: the fruit has no pappus (see Hypochaeris): the plant is common in shady places, where it flowers in late summer.
58. Hawk's-beard, Crepis virens, Daisy family. A slender branched plant of medium size, common in meadows, where it flowers in summer: the upper leaves are arrow-shaped, and clasp the stem; the lower are frequently cut into blunt segments, or they may only have large, narrow teeth: the leaves are all smooth: the flower-heads are smallish, and occur in a loose brush: G. paludosa is a larger-flowered species, with dandelion-like leaves, which grows in marshy ground.
59. Mouse-ear Hawkweed, Hieractum Pilosella, Daisy family. The leaves form a rosette on the surface of the ground: they are oval and pointed, very hairy on both sides, and white underneath: the flower-heads are fairly large, and occur singly on the end of stalks 3 to 4 ins. high, several of which may rise from the centre of the rosette: the rosette also gives rise to leafy runners: the plant is common on dry sunny banks, and flowers all summer.
59. Mouse-ear Hawkweed.
60. Hawkweed, Hieracium boreale, Daisy family. A tall (2 to 4 ft.), handsome plant, with large yellow flower-heads, gathered into a loose apical inflorescence: the stem is leafy and branched, the leaves toothed, ovate or lance-shaped, the upper sessile, the lower narrowed into a stalk: flowers about August, and is common in dry sunny situations: there is a very large number of different species of Hawkweed, many of which differ only slightly from each other.
61. Cat's-ear, Hypochaeris radicata, Daisy family. The leaves form a rosette: they are oblong, with large, blunt teeth pointing backwards, and covered with short rough hairs; the stem is about 1 ft. high, is branched, and has only very small leaves: the flower-heads are large, and occur singly at the apices of the stem branches: like most other members of the daisy family, the little, seed-like fruits are crowned by a circle of fine hairs the "pappus" - which represents the calyx of the flower: this pappus enables the fruit to remain long suspended in the air, so that it may be borne a considerable distance by the wind, and settle in a new position far from the parent plant: in the case of the Cat's-ear (and some others), the pappus is borne, not on the fruit itself, but on a slender beak situated on the apex of the fruit: it has the appearance of a tiny umbrella: the Cats-ear grows on waste ground, and flowers in July.