There are only a few wild verbenas in America as compared with the numbers of the family in the tropics where most of them are found. Of the verbenas east of the Rockies, it is the vervains which predominate as well-established weeds.

Hoary Vervain.

Verbena stricta Vent.

June - August Upland pastures.

Of them all. perhaps the hoary vervain is most beautiful. Its flowers are bright blue-purple, five-parted and tubular, much like the individual flowers of the garden verbena, except that in the vervain they are arranged in stiff spikes at the top of the plant. The flowers begin to bloom from the lower end of the spikes and continue to bloom for many days until they have reached the top. The leaves are thick, downy-hairy, toothed. grey-green, and the plants are tall, stiff, and well fitted to withstand the hot sunshine of the upland pastures and dry. weedy hills where they are most frequently found.

The vervains in Illinois are varied. White vervain (Verbena urti-cifolia) is a fine-hairy plant which often reaches a height of five feet or more in moist places. The leaves are coarsely toothed, dark green, and hairy. The flowers are tiny, white, and are produced on loose, spreading spikes. In sandy ground is found the narrow-leaved vervain {Verbena simplex). Blue vervain (Verbena hastata) is common in wet places with swamp milkweeds and tickseed sunflowers. The lowers are bright purple and the plant is slender and much branched above.