1. H. aeutil'oba, DC. (Sharp-lobed H.) Leaves with 3 (sometimes 5) acute lobes, appearing after the flowers. Petioles silky-hairy. - Woods in spring.
2. H. tril'oba, Chaix. (Round-lobed H.) Leaves with 3 rounded lobes; those of the involucre also obtuse. - Dry rich woods in spring.
(The two species just described are included under Anemone in Macoun's Catalogue, the first named being A. acutiloba, Lawson, and the second A. Hepatica, L.)
1. T. anemonoi'des, Michx. (Anemonella thalictroides, Spach.) (Rue-Anemone.) Stem low. Stem-leaves all in a whorl at the top. Roots tuberous. Flowers several in an umbel, by which character this plant is easily distinguished from Wood Anemone, which it otherwise resembles. - South-westward, in spring.
2. T. dioi'eum, L. (Early M.) Stem smooth, pale and glaucous. 1-2 feet high. Flowers dioecious, in ample panicles, purplish or greenish; the yellow anthers drooping and very conspicuous. Leaves alternate, decompound; leaflets with 5-7 rounded lobes. - Woods.
3. T. polyg'amum, Muhl. (T. Cornuti, L.) (Tall M.) Stem smooth or nearly so, 2-6 feet high. Leaves sessile; leaflets very much like No. 2. Flowers white, in compound panicles; anthers not drooping; filaments club-shaped. - Low wet meadows, and along streams.
4. T. purpuras'eens, L. (Purplish M.) Stem mostly purplish, 2-4 feet high. Stem-leaves sessile or nearly so; leaflets veiny beneath, often glandular-pubescent, and so distinguished from No. 3. Flowers resembling those of No. 2.
1. M. minimus, L. Scapes 2-6 inches high. Leaves linear-spathulate. Achenes blunt, in a spike 1-2 inches long when ripe.
2. M. arista'tus, Benth., is easily distinguished from the above by the persistent style nearly as long as the achene. N.W.
1. R. aquat'ilis, L., var. trichophyl'lus, Gray. (White Water-Crowfoot.) Foliage under water, filiform, usually collapsing when withdrawn from the water. Flowers white, floating, each petal with a little pit on the inside of the claw. - Stagnant pools and slow-flowing streams.
2. R. circina'tus, Sibth. Much like No. 1, but the immersed leaves are mostly sessile, and do not collapse when withdrawn from the water. - Toronto harbour; and abundant in N. W.
3. R. Cymbalaria, Pursh. (Sea-Side Crowfoot.) Low, smooth, spreading by runners which take root at the joints. Leaves long-petioled, roundish, crenate, rather fleshy. Petals 5-8, yellow. Carpels striate, in an oblong head. - Seashore, and beside brackish streams and springs.
4. R. multif'idus, Pursh. (Yellow Water-Croweoot. ) Like No. 1, but larger, and with yellow flowers, sometimes creeping in the mud; the leaves round kidney-shaped, and more or less deeply lobed and toothed. - Ponds and ditches.
5. R. Flam'mula, L., var. reptans, Meyer. (Creeping Spearwort.) Stem reclining, rooting at the joints, only 3-6 inches long. Leaves linear, entire, remote. Flowers yellow, 1/4 of an inch broad. - Sandy and gravelly shores of ponds and rivers.
6. R. rhomboi'deus, Goldie. Stem erect, low (3-8 inches), hairy; root-leaves roundish or rhombic-ovate, mostly crenate; lowest stem-leaves similar or 3-5-lobed, the upper nearly sessile and deeply cut into linear lobes. Petals large, exceeding the calyx; achenes orbicular, with a minute beak, in a globular head. - Dry plains, in early summer.
7. R. affl'nis, R. Br. (Rough-fruited C.) Taller than No. 6, more or less pubescent. Root-leaves petioled, usually pedately multifid; stem-leaves nearly sessile, with broadly linear lobes. Petals light-yellow, about half an inch long. Achenes, with recurved beaks, forming an oblong head. - N. W.
8. R. aborti'vus, L. (Small-flowered C.) Petals shorter than the reflexed calyx. Stem erect, very smooth, slender. Radical leaves roundish, crenate, petiolate; stem-leaves 3-5-parted, sessile. Carpels in a globular head, each with a minute curved beak. - Shady hill-sides and wet pastures. Var. mieranthus, Gray, is pubescent, with more slender peduncles and fewer achenes.
9. R. scelera'tus, L. (Cursed C.) Petals about the same length as the calyx. Stem thick, hollow, smooth. Radical leaves 3-lobed; stem-leaves 3-parted, uppermost almost sessile.. Head of carpels oblong. - Wet ditches.
10. R. recurva'tus, Poir. (Hooked C.) Petals shorter than the reflexed calyx. Stem hirsute, with stiff spreading hairs. Radical and cauline leaves about alike, long-petioled. Head of carpels globular, each with a long recurved beak. - Woods.
11. R. Pennsylvan'icus, L. (Bristly C.) Petals not longer than the reflexed calyx. Stem hirsute. Leaves ter-nately divided, divisions of the leaves stalked, unequally 3-cleft. Head of carpels oblong, achenes with straight beaks, and so easily distinguished from No. 10. - Wet places.
12. R. his'pidus, Michx. Resembling the last species, but with few-leaved ascending or reclining stems, not always hirsute. Root a cluster of stout fibres. Calyx hardly reflexed, soon deciduous, much shorter than the petals. Achenes strongly margined, with straight beaks; in a globular or oval head. - Wesley Park, Niagara.
13. R. septentriona'lis, Poir. Petals much longer than the calyx. Early-flowering stems ascending, putting forth long runners during the summer. Leaves ternate, divisions generally stalked, deeply and sharply lobed, petioles ap-pressed-pubescent. Achenes large, compressed, strongly margined, in globular heads, and with long flat beaks. Peduncles furrowed. - Wet places.
14. R. repens, L. Much, resembling the last in habit, but smaller, and the leaves not so deeply and sharply cut. Flowering later. Leaves often blotched with white. The style shorter than in No. 13, and stigmatic along the whole inner side, persistent. - Low ground, chiefly eastward.
15. R. bulbo'sus, L. (Bulbous C. or Buttercup.) Petals much longer than the calyx. Stem erect, from a bulb-like base. Flowers an inch broad, on furrowed peduncles. - Pastures. Rather rare.
16. R. a'cris, L. (Tall C. or Buttercup.) Much taller than No. 15. Petals much longer than the calyx. Stem upright, no bulb at the base. Peduncles not furrowed.
17. R. faseicula'ris, Muhl. (Early C.) Petals much longer than the calyx. Plant 5-9 inches high, erect, pubescent with silky hairs. Radical leaves appearing pinnate, the terminal division long-stalked, the lateral ones sessile. Root a bundle of thickened fleshy fibres. - Rocky woods and fields in spring.
C. palustris, L. (Marsh-Marigold.) Stem about a foot high, hollow, round, forking, very glabrous. Flowers golden yellow, 1-1 1/2 inches broad. - Swamps and wet meadows. A very conspicuous plant in early spring.
C. trifolia, Salisb. (Three-leaved Goldthread.) Low and stemless. Scapes 1-flowered, with a single bract above the middle. Petals much smaller than the sepals. - On logs and about stumps in cedar swamps.
1. A. Canadensis, L. (Wild Columbine.) Stem branching, a foot or more in height, smooth. Leaves decompound; leaflets in threes. Flowers nodding, scarlet outside, yellow within. - Rocky woods and thickets.
2. A. vulga'ris, L. (Garden Columbine.) This species has escaped from cultivation in some places. Spurs hooked. Flowers blue, purple, or whitish.
1. D. azu'reum, Michx. (Prairie Larkspur.) Carpels 3, the pods erect. Lobes of the leaves numerous, narrowly-linear. Raceme strict, but not dense. Spur usually curved upwards. - N.W.
2. D. Consol'ida, L. (Field L.) Has escaped from gardens in a few places. The pistil is single, and the flowers are scattered on the spreading branches. Petals 2, united.
1. A. spicata, L., var. rubra, Ait. (Red B.) Raceme short, breadth and length being about the same. Pedicels slender. Berries red. - Rich woods.
2. A. alba, Bigel. (White B.) Raceme longer than broad. Pedicels thickened in fruit, cherry-coloured. Berries white. - Same localities as No. 1.
C. raeemo'sa, Ell, (Black Snakeroot.) Stem 3-6 feet high. Resembling a tall Actaea, but easily distinguished by its plume-like raceme of white flowers. - South-western Ontario.
Yellow Puccoon. H. Canadensis, L. A low plant, bearing a single radical leaf, and a pair of cauline ones near the summit of the simple stem. Leaves rounded, cordate, 5-7-lobed, very large when fully grown. - Wet meadows, in early summer, south-westward.