Plants with flowers having both calyx and corolla, the latter consisting of petals entirely separate from each other. (In some genera and species, however, petals are absent.)
Herbs or woody climbers, with an acrid colourless juice. Parts of the flower separate from each other. Corolla sometimes wanting. Stamens numerous. Pistil (with one or two exceptions) apocarpous. Fruit an achene, follicle, or berry. Leaves exstipulate, with the blades usually dissected, and petioles spreading at the base.
1. Clem'atls. Real petals none or stamen like. Coloured sepals 4 or more, valvate in the bud. Fruit an achene, with the long and feathery style attached. Leaves all opposite. Plant climbing by the bending of the petioles.
2. Anemo'ne. Petals none or stamen-like. Coloured sepals imbricated in the bud. Achenes many, in a head, pointed or tailed, not ribbed. Stem-leaves opposite or whorled, forming an involucre remote from the flower.
3. Hepat'ica. Petals none. Coloured sepals 6-12, whitish or bluish.
Achenes many, not ribbed. Leaves all radical. An involucre of 3 leaves close to the flower, and liable to be mistaken for a calyx.
4. Tuallc'trnm. Petals none. Coloured sepals 4 or more, greenish.
Achenes several, angled or grooved. No involucre. Stem-leaves alternate, decompound. Flowers in panicles or corymbs, mostly dioecious.
5. Myosu rus. Petals 5, white, with slender claws. Sepals 5, spurred at the base. Achenes in a long slender spike. Small plants with tufted narrow root-leaves, and 1-flowered scapes.
6. Ranun' culus. Sepals 5, deciduous. Petals generally 5, each with a pit or little scale on the inside of the claw. Achenes many, in heads, short-pointed. Stem-leaves alternate. Flowers solitary or corymbed, mostly yellow, rarely white.
7. Car'tha. Petals none. Sepals 5-9, yellow. Fruit a many-seeded follicle. Leaves large, glabrous, heart-shaped or kidney-shaped, mostly crenate. Stem hollow and furrowed.
8. Cop lis. Sepals 5-7, white, deciduous. Petals 5-7, yellow with slender claws, and somewhat tubular at the apex. Carpels 3-7, on slender stalks. Fruit a follicle. Flowers on naked scapes. Leaves radical, shining, divided into three wedge-shaped leaflets, sharply toothed. Root fibrous, golden yellow.
9. Aquile gia. Sepals 5, coloured. Petals 5, each a long hollow spur.
Carpels 5. Follicles erect, many-seeded. Flowers very showy, terminating the branches. Leaves decompound.
10. Delphinium. Sepals 5, unequal, petal-like, the upper one produced backward into a spur. Petals 4, irregular, the upper pair spurred, and projecting backward into the spur of the upper sepal (rarely only 2). Flowers blue or whitish, in terminal racemes. Leaves palmately dissected.
11. Actae'a. Sepals 4-5, caducous. Petals 4-10, with slender claws.
Stamens many, with long filaments. Fruit a many-seeded berry. Flowers in a short thick raceme. Leaves decompound, leaflets sharply toothed.
12. Cimicif'uga. Sepals 4-5, caducous. Petals several, small, twohorned at the apex. Carpels 1-8, becoming pods. Flowers in long plume-like racemes.
13. Hydras'(is. Petals none. Flowers solitary. Sepals 3, petal-like, greenish-white. Carpels 12 or more, forming a head of crimson 1-2-seeded berries in fruit. Stem low, from a knotted yellow root-stock. Leaves simple, lobed.
1. C. Virginia'na, L. (Common Virgin's Bower.) A woody-stemmed climber. Mowers in panicled clusters, often dioecious, white. Leaves of 3 ovate leaflets, which are cut or lobed. Feathery tails of the achenes very conspicuous in the autumn. - Along streams and in swamps.
2. C. ligusticifo'lia, Nutt. Very much like the last, but the leaves have usually 5 leaflets. - N. W.
3. C. verticilla'ris, DC. Shrubby climber. Peduncles bearing single large flowers, with thin, wide-spreading, bluish-purple sepals. Tails of the achenes plumose. Leaves of three leaflets, which are entire, or sparingly toothed or lobed. - Rocky places.
* Styles long and hairy, forming feathery tails in fruit. 1. A. patens, L., var. Nuttallia'na, Gray. (Prairie A. or Pasque Flower.) Villous with long silky hairs. Flower erect, appearing before the leaves. Sepals 5-7, purplish or white, an inch or more in length, spreading at maturity. Involucre sessile, its lobes numerous, all united at the base to form a shallow cup. Leaves radical, the blades deeply cut into 3 well-marked divisions, the middle one stalked, and all again dissected into narrow lobes. Feathery tails of the carpels 2 inches long. A low plant, flowering in early spring. - N. W.
** Styles short, not plumose.
2. A. parviflo'ra, Michx. (Small-flowered A.) Stem 8-12 inches high, one-flowered. Sepals 5 or 6, white. Involucre 2-3-leaved far below the flower. Head of carpels woolly, globular. Root-leaves small, 3-parted, their divisions crenately lobed. - Rocky river-margins.
3. A. multif'ida, DC. (Many-cleft A.) Silky-hairy. Principal involucre 2-3-leaved, bearing one naked and one or two 2-leaved peduncles. Leaves of the involucre short-petioled, twice or thrice 3-parted and cleft, their divisions linear. Sepals red, greenish-yellow, or whitish. Head of carpels spherical or oval, woolly. - Rocky river-margins, etc.
1. A. cylin'drica, Gray. (Long-fruited A.) Carpels very numerous, in an oblong woolly head about an inch long. Peduncles 2-6, long, upright, leafless. Stem-leaves in a whorl, twice or thrice as many as the peduncles, long-petioled. Sepals 5, greenish-white. Plant about two feet high, clothed with silky hairs. - Dry woods.
5. A. Virginia'na, L. (Virginian A.) Very much like the last, but larger. Also, the central peduncle only is naked, the others having each a pair of leaves about the middle, from whose axils other peduncles occasionally spring. Sepals greenish. Head of carpels oval or oblong. - Dry rocky woods and river banks.
6. A. Pennsylvan'iea, L. (A.dichotoma,L., in Macoun's Catalogue.) (Pennsylvanian A.) Carpels fewer and the head not woolly, but pubescent and spherical. Stem-leaves sessile, primary ones 3 in a whorl, but only a pair of smaller ones on each side of the flowering branches. Radical leaves 5-7-parted. Sepals 5, obovate, large and white. Plant hairy, scarcely a foot high. - Low meadows.
7. A. nemoro'sa, L. (Wood A. Wind-flower.) Plant not more than six inches high, nearly smooth, one-flowered.
Stem-leaves in a whorl of 3, long-petioled, 3-5-parted. Sepals 4-7, oval, white, or often purplish on the back. - Moist places.