Distinguished ordinarily by having net-veined leaves, and the parts of the flowers in fours or fives, very rarely in sixes. Wood growing in rings, and surrounded by a true bark. Cotyledons of the embryo mostly two.

Sub-Class I. Angiosperms. Seeds Enclosed In An Ovary. I. Polypetalous Division

Two distinct sets of Floral Envelopes. Parts of the corolla separate from each other.

A. Stamens more than twice as many as the petals.

* Stamens hypogynous (inserted on the receptable).

+ Pistil apocarpous (carpels separate from each other).

Ranuncclaceae. - Herbs. Leaves generally decompound or much dissected............................ 2

Small trees. Leaves entire. Petals 6, in 2 sets......................................... 10

MagnoliaceAe - Trees. Leaves truncate. Fruit resembling a cone................................. 9

Menispermaceae.- Woody twiners. Flowers dioecious.

Leaves peltate near the edge.................. 10

Brasenia, in Nymphaeaceae.- Aquatic. Leaves oval, peltate; the petiole attached to the centre...................... 12

Malvaceae.- Stamens monadelphous. Calyx persistent.

Ovaries in a ring............................. 38

Podophyllum, in Berberidaceae.- Calyx fugacious. Leaves large, peltate, deeply lobed. Fruit a large fleshy berry, 1-celled. 10

+ + Pistil syncarpous. (Stigmas, styles, placentce, or cells, more than one). Actaea, in Ranunculaceae, might be looked for here. Fruit a many-seeded berry. Leaves compound......... 2

Nymphaeaceae. - Aquatics. Leaves floating, large, deeply cordate...................................... 12

Sarraceniaceae. - Bog-plants. Leaves pitcher-shaped.. 13

Papaveraceae. - Juice red or yellow. Sepals 2, caducous. 14

Capparidaceae. - Corolla cruciform, but pod 1-celled.

Leaves of 3 leaflets............................ 25

Hypericaceae. - Leaves transparent - dotted. Stamens usually in 3, but sometimes in 5, clusters ..... 30

Cistaceae. - Sepals 5, very unequal, or only 3. Ovary 1celled, with 3 parietal placentae .............. 29

Malvaceae. - Stamens monadelphous, connected with the bottom of the petals. Calyx persistent. Ovaries in a ring.................................... 38

Tiliaceae. - Trees. Flowers yellowish, in small hanging cymes, the peduncle with a leaf-like bract attached ....................................... 39

* * Stamens perigynous (inserted on the calyx).

Poptulaca, in Portulacaceae. - Low herbs, with fleshy leaves. Sepals 2, adhering to the ovary beneath. Pod opening by a lid...................................... 37

Rosaceae. - Leaves alternate, with stipules. Fruit apocarpous, or a drupe, or a pome... ............. 62

Cactaceae. - Very fleshy (commonly prickly) plants, of peculiar appearance; either globose or of flattened joints. Sepals and petals many. Stamens many, inserted on the tube of sepals and petals......... 86

* * * Stamens epigynous (attached to the ovary).

Nymphaea, in Nymphaeaceae. - Aquatic. Leaves floating. Flowers white, large, with numerous petals gradually passing into stamens.......................... 12

B. Stamens not more than twice as many as the petals.

* Stamens just as many as the petals, and one stamen in front of each petal.

Berberidaceae. - Herbs (with us). Anthers opening by uplifting valves............................... 10

Portulacaceae. - Sepals 2. Styles 3-cleft. Leaves 2, fleshy........................................ 37

Vitaceae. - Shrubs, climbing by tendrils. Calyx minute. 44 Rhamnaceae. - Shrubs, not climbing.................... 45

Plumbaginaceae. - Herbs. Calyx plaited. Styles 5.

Ovary 1 -celled and 1-seeded.................. 144

Lysimachia, in Primulaceae, is occasionally polypetalous. Flowers yellow, in axillary spikes; the petals sprinkled with purplish dots................................. 145

* * Stamens either just as many as the petals and alternate with them, or not of exactly the same number.

+ Corolla irregular.

Fumariaceae. - Corolla flattened and closed. Stamens 6. 15

Violaceae. - Corolla 1 -spurred. Stamens 5. Pod with 3 rows of seeds on the walls.................... 26

Balsaminaceae. - Corolla 1-spurred, the spur with a tail.

Stamens 5. Pod bursting elastically.......... 42

Polygalaceae. - Lower petal keel-shaped, usually fringed at the top. Anthens 6 or 8, 1-celled, opening at the top. Pod 2-celled....................... 48

Leguminosae. - Corolla mostly papilionaceous. Filaments often united. Ovary simple, with one parietal placenta. Leaves compound.................. 49

+ + Corolla regular, or nearly so.

1. Calyx superior (i.e., adherent to the ovary, wholly or partially).

(a) Stamens perigynous (inserted on the calyx).

Crataegus, in Rosaceae. - Shrubs. Stamens occasionally from 5 to l0 only.

Leaves alternate, with stipules. Fruit drupe-like, containing 1-5 bony nutlets.................... 62

Saxifragaceae. - Leaves opposite or alternate, without stipules. Styles or stigmas 2; in one instance 4.

Ovary 1-celled, with 2 or 3 parietal placentae.... 75

Hamamelaceae. - Shrubs. Stamens 8; styles 2. Flowers yellow, in autumn............................ 79

Halorageae. - Aquatics." Stamens 4 or 8. Styles or sessile stigmas 4..;............................ 79

Onagraceae. - Flowers symmetrical. Stamens 2, 4, or 8.

Stigmas 2 or 4, or capitate..................... 81

Melastomaceae. - Anthers 1-celled, opening by a pore at the apex. Stamens 8. Style and stigma 1. Flowers purple................................... 84

Lythraceae. - Calyx apparently adherent to, but really free from, the ovary. Stamens mostly unequal. Leaves mostly whorled. Flowers varying as to relative lengths of stamens and style.......... 84

Cucurbitaceae. - Tendril-bearing herbs. Flowers monoecious ................................... .... 85