0. speeta'bilis, L. (Showy Orchis.) Scape 4-angled, 4-7 inches high, bearing a few flowers in a spike. The arching upper lip pink-purple, the labellum white; each flower in the axil of a leaf-like bract.
1. H. tridentata, Hook. Spike few-flowered, the flowers very small, greenish-white. Lip wedge-shaped, truncate and 3-toothed at the apex. Spur slender, longer than the ovary, curved upwards. Stem less than a foot high, slender, with one oblanceolate leaf below and 2 or 3 much smaller ones above. - "Wet woods.
2. H. vires'cens,Spreng. Stem 10-20 inches high. Spike of small greenish flowers at first dense, with the bracts longer than the flowers, at length long and loose. Lip oblong, almost truncate at the tip; a tooth on each side at the base, and a nasal protuberance on the face. Spur slender, club-shaped. Leaves ovate-oblong or oblong-lanceolate, the upper ones gradually narrowing and passing into bracts. - Wet places.
3. H. vir'idis, R. Br., var. bracteata, Reichenbach. (H. bracteata, R. Br., in Macoun's Catalogue.) Spike many-flowered, close. Flowers small, greenish. Lip oblong-linear, 2-3-lobed at the tip, much longer than the very short and saclike spur. Stem 6-12 inches high, leafy, the lower leaves obovate, the upper oblong or lanceolate, gradually reduced to bracts much longer than the flowers.
4. H. hyperbo'rea, R. Br. Spike many-flowered, long and dense. Flowers small, greenish. Lip lanceolate, entire, about the same length as the slender incurved spur. Stem 6-24 inches high, very leafy, the leaves lanceolate and erect, and the bracts longer than the flowers. - Bogs and wet woods.
5. H. dilatata, Gray. Not unlike No. 4, but more slender and with linear leaves and white flowers.
6. H. rotundifo'lia, Richardson. (Orchis rotundifolia, Gray, in Macoun's Catalogue.) Spike few-flowered, loose. Flowers rose-purple, the lip usually white, spotted with purple, 3-lobed, the middle larger and notched, longer than the slender spur. Stem 5-9 inches high, naked and scape-like above, bearing a single roundish leaf at the base. - Bogs and wet woods.
7. H. obtusata, Richardson. Stem as in the last, but the leaf is obovate or spathulate-oblong. Spike few-flowered, the flowers greenish-white. Upper sepal broad and rounded, the others and the petals lance-oblong. Lip entire, deflexed, as long as the tapering and curving spur. - Bogs.
8. H. Hook'eri, Torr. Spike many-flowered, strict. Flowers yellowish-green, the lip lanceolate, pointed, incurved; petals lance-awl-shaped. Spur slender, acute, nearly an inch long. Stem scape-like above, 2-leaved at the base, the leaves orbicular. - Woods.
Var. Oblongifo'lia, J. A. Paine, has oblong leaves.
9. H. orbiculata, Torr. Spike many-flowered, loose and spreading. Flowers greenish-white. Lip narrowly linear, obtuse. Spur curved, more than an inch long, thickened towards the apex. Scape 2-leaved at the base, the leaves very large, orbicular and lying flat on the ground, shining above, silvery beneath. - Rich woods.
10. H. blephariglot'tis, Hook. (White Fringed-Orchis.) Spike many-flowered, open. Flowers white, very handsome; the lip fringed, but not lobed, at the apex. Spur thread-shaped, three times as long as the lip. Stem a foot high, leafy; the leaves oblong or lanceolate, the bracts shorter than the ovaries. - Peat-bogs, etc.
11. H. leucophae'a, Gray. (Greenish Fringed-Orchis.) Spike as in the last, but the flowers greenish or yellowish-white. Petals obovate, minutely cut-toothed. Lip 3-parted above the stalk-like base, the divisions fan-shaped, fringed. Spur gradually thickened downward, longer than the ovary. Stem leafy, 2-4 feet high. Leaves oblong-lanceolate; bracts a little shorter than the flowers. - Wet meadows.
12. H. la'cera, R. Br. (Ragged Fringed-Orchis.) Like the last, but the petals are oblong-linear and entire. The divisions of the lip also are narrow and the fringe is less copious. - Bogs and rich woods.
13. H. psyco'des, Gray. (Purple Fringed-Orchis.) Spike cylindrical, many-flowered, the flowers pink-purple, fragrant. Lip fan-shaped, 3-parted above the stalk-like base, the divisions fringed. Spur curved, somewhat thickened downward, very long. - Low grounds.
14. H. flmbriata, R. Br. Resembling the last, but the flowers 3 or 4 times larger, and the petals toothed down the sides. Divisions of the large lip more fringed. Spike loosely flowered. - Wet meadows, chiefly eastward.
Richard. Ladies' Tresses. 1. S. latifo'lia, Torr. Flowers white, in 3 ranks, forming a narrow spike. Lip oblong, yellowish on the face, not contracted in the middle, wavy-crisped at the blunt apex. Stem nearly naked. Leaves oblong or lance-oblong. - Moist banks.
2. S. Romanzovia'na, Chamisso. Spike dense, oblong or cylindrical. Flowers pure white, in 3 ranks in the spike. Lip ovate-oblong, contracted below the wavy recurved apex. Sepals and petals all connivent above. Beak of the stigma 2-horned, short. Stem 5-15 inches high, leafy below, leafy-bracted above; the leaves oblong-lanceolate or linear. - Cool bogs.
3. S. cer'nua, Richard. Resembling the last, but the lower sepals are not upturned or connivent with the upper. Margins of the lower lip much incurved. Gland of the stigma linear, in a long and slender beak. - Wet places.
4. S. grae'ilis, Bigelow. Flowers in a single spirally-twisted rank at the summit of the very slender scape. Leaves with blades all in a cluster at the base, ovate or oblong. Scape 8-18 inches high. - Sandy plains and pine barrens.
1. G. repens, R. Br. Flowers in a loose 1-sided spike. Lip with a recurved tip. Scape 5-8 inches high. Leaves thickish, petioled, intersected with whitish veins. - Woods, usually under evergreens.
2. G. pubes'cens, R. Br. Spike not 1-sided. Plant rather larger than the last, and the leaves more strongly white-veined. - Rich woods.
3. G. Menzies'ii, Lindl., is found in the north-western part of Ontario. The leaves are less white-veiny than the preceding, and the column is continued above the stigma into a conspicuous awl-shaped beak. The lip, also, is hardly, if at all, saccate below.
E. Hellebori'ne, Crantz. Near Toronto, on the bank of the Humber, and at Montreal.
1. L. cordata, R. Br. Racemes crowded; pedicels not longer than the ovary. Lip linear, 2-cleft. Column very short. - Damp cold woods.
2. L. convallarioi'des, Nutt. Racemes loose and slender; pedicels longer than the ovary. Lip wedge-oblong, 2-lobed. Column longer than the last. - Damp thickets.
R. Br. Calopogon. C. pulchel'lus, B. Br. Leaf linear. Scape a foot high. Flowers an inch across. - Bogs.
Gronov. Arethusa. A. bulbo'sa, L. A beautiful little bog-plant, bearing a single large flower (rarely 2), with the lip bearded-crested on the face.
Juss. Pogonia P. ophioglossoi'des, Nutt. A bog-plant. Sepals and petals nearly equal and alike. Boot of thick fibres.
Salisb. Calypso. C. borea'lis, Salisb. A beautiful little plant growing in mossy bogs. The lip woolly inside; the petals and sepals resembling each other, lanceolate, sharp-pointed. Column winged.
1. M. monophyl'los, Lindl. Leaf sheathing the base of the stem, ovate-elliptical. Raceme spiked, long and slender. Lip long-pointed. - Cold swamps.
2. M. ophioglossoi'des, Nutt. Leaf near the middle of the stem, ovate, clasping. Raceme short. Lip 3-toothed. - Damp woods, not so common as the last.
Richard. Twayblade. L. Loese'lii, Richard. Lip yellowish-green, mucronate, shorter than the unequal petals and sepals. Leaves elliptical-lanceolate or oblong, keeled. - Bogs.
1. C. innata, R. Br. Flowers small; the lip whitish or purplish, often crimson-spotted, 3-lobed above the base. Spur very small. Stem slender, brownish-yellow, with a few-flowered spike. - Swamps.
2. C. multiflo'ra, Nutt. Spike many-flowered. Stem purplish, stout. Lip deeply 3-lobed. Spur more prominent than in No. 1. - Dry woods.
3. C. Macrae'i, Gray. (0. striata, Lindl., in Macoun's Catalogue.) Spike crowded, of numerous large flowers, all the parts of the perianth strikingly marked with 3 dark lines. Lip not lobed. Spur none, but the base of the perianth gibbous. - Rich woods; not common.
Nutt. Potty-root. Adam-and-Eve. A. hyema'le, Nutt. Scape a foot high. Perianth greenish-brown. - Rich mould in woods.
L. Lady's Slipper. Moccasin-flower. * The three sepals separate.
1. C. arieti'num, R. Br. (Ram's-head Lady's Slipper.) The smallest species. Stem slender, 6-10 inches high, leafy. Leaves 3 or 4, elliptical-lanceolate, nearly smooth. Lip only half an inch, red and whitish veiny, prolonged at the apex into a deflexed point. - Swamps; rare.
* * Two sepals united into one piece under the lip.
2. C. parviflo'rum, Salisb. (Smaller Yellow Lady's Slipper.) Stem leafy to the top, 1-3-flowered. Lip yellow, flattish above, rather less than an inch long. Sepals and petals wavy-twisted, brownish, pointed, longer than the lip. - Bogs and wet woods.
3. C. pubes'cens, Willd. (Larger Yellow L.) Lip flattened laterally, rounded above, larger than No. 2, but the two species are not sufficiently distinct.
4. C. Specta'bile, Swartz. (Showy L.) Lip very large, white, pinkish in front. Sepals and petals rounded, white, not longer than the lip. - Bogs.
5. C. acau'le, Ait. (Stemless L.) Scape naked, 2-leaved at the base. 1-flowered. Lip rose-purple, split down the whole length in front, veiny. Sepals and petals greenish. - Dry or moist woods, under evergreens.