Grass-like or sedge-like plants, with, however, flowers similar in structure to those of the last Order. Perianth greenish and glumaceous, of 6 divisions in 2 sets of 3 each.

Stamens 6 (occasionally 3). Style 1. Stigmas 3. Pod 3-celled, or 1-celled with 3 placentae on the walls. The plants of the Order are not of any very great interest to the young student, and the determination of the species, is rather difficult. A brief description of a few of the most common is given here, as an easy introduction to the study of the Order with the aid of more advanced text-books.

Synopsis Of The Genera

1. Lu'zula. Plant less than 1 foot high. Leaves linear or lance-linear, flat, usually hairy. Pod 1-celled, 3-seeded. Flowers in umbels or in spikes. Plants usually growing in dry ground.

2. Juncus. Plants always smooth, growing in water or wet soil.

Flowers small, greenish or brownish, panicled or clustered. Pod 3-eelled, many-seeded.

I. Lu'zula. Dc. Wood-Rush

1. L. pilo'sa, Willd. {L. vernalis, DC.) Flowers um-belled, long-peduncled, brown-coloured. Sepals pointed. - Shady banks.

2. L. campestris, DC, has the flowers (light brown) in 4-12 spikes, the spikes umbelled. Sepals bristle-pointed. - Fields and woods.

2. Juncus. L. Rush

* Scapes single and leafless, bnt with sheaths at the base. Flowers in sessile panicles, apparently from the side of the scape, owing to the involucral leaf being similar to and continuing the scape.

1. J. effu'sus, L. (Common or Soft Rush.) Scape 2-4 feet high, soft and pliant, furnished at the base with merely leafless sheaths, the inner sheaths awned. Panicle many-flowered. Flowers small, greenish, only 1 on each pedicel. Stamens 3. Pod greenish-brown, triangular-obovate, not pointed. - Marshes.

2. J. fllifor'mis, L., has a very slender scape (1-2 feet high), fewer flowers than No. 1, and 6 stamens in each. Pod greenish, broadly ovate, and short-pointed. No leaves.

3. J. Bal'ticus, Dethard, var. littoralis, Engelm. Scape rigid, 2-3 feet high. No leaves. Panicle loose. Flowers brownish. Pod elliptical, somewhat triangular, obtuse but pointed, deep-brown.

Var. monta'nus, Engelm., has an ovate-pyramidal, angled, and beaked capsule. - N.W.

* * Stem Leafy at the base or throughout; the leaves flat or channelled but never knotted. Panicle terminal.

4. J. styg'ius, L. Scape slender, 1-3-leaved below, naked above. Leaves thread-like, hollow, not knotted. Heads 1 or 2, of 3-4 flowers, about as long as the dry, awl-pointed sheathing bract. Stamens 6. - Peat bogs, Atl. Prov.

5. J. Greenii, Oakes and Tuckerm. Stem slender, simple, tufted. Leaves nearly terete, deeply channelled on the inner side. Flowers solitary, panicled. The principal leaf of the involucre usually much longer than the panicle. Pod ovoid-oblong, obtuse, longer than the acute sepals. Seeds ribbed, and delicately cross-lined. - Wet sandy places.

6. J. Va'seyi, Engelm. Stem slender, rigid, tufted, leafy below, 12-30 inches high, not branching. Leaves nearly terete, very slightly channelled. Panicle longer than the involucral leaf. Flowers greenish or light brown, few, often 1-sided. Pod oblong, retuse, greenish-brown. - Wet meadows, N.W.

7. J. Gerard'i, Loisel. (Black Grass.) Stems rigid, 1-2 feet high. Panicle contracted, usually longer than the involucral leaf. Flowers brown and green. Sepals incurved, as long as the mucronate capsule. Seeds obovate, delicately ribbed and cross-lined. - Salt marshes, Atl. Prov.

8. J. longis'tylis, Torr, and Gr. Flowers in heads. Heads few, or rarely single. Flowers greenish with brown lines. - N.W.

9. J. bufo'nius, L. Stem leafy, slender, 3-9 inches high, branching from the base. Panicle terminal, spreading. Flowers greenish, single on the pedicels. Sepals awl-pointed, the outer set much longer than the inner and than the blunt pod. Stamens 6. - Ditches along roadsides.

10. J. ten'uis, Willd. Stems leafy below, wiry, 9-18 inches high, simple, tufted. Panicle loose, shorter than the slender involucral leaves. Flowers greenish, single on the pedicels; the sepals longer than the blunt pod. Seeds white-pointed at both ends. - Open low grounds.

* * * Stem leafy; the leaves terete or laterally compreesed, knotted by internal cross-partitions. Panicle terminal, the flowers mostly in heads.

+ Stamens 6.

11. J. pelocar'pus, E. Meyer. Stems slender and erect. 6-18 inches high. Leaves few, thread-like, slightly knotted. Flowers greenish with red, single or in pairs in the forks and along one side of the branches of the panicle, and often with accompanying tufts of leaves. The 3 inner sepals longer than the outer ones, but shorter than the oblong taper-beaked 1-celled pod. Seeds obovate, short-pointed.

12. J articula'tus, L. Stems 9-15 inches high, tufted from a short creeping rootstock, with 1 or 2 slender leaves, bearing crowded 3-8-flowered heads in short spreading panicles. Capsule deep-brown. - Wet places, Atl. Prov.

13. J. alpi'nus, Villars, var. insignis, Fries. Stems erect;- 9-18 inches high, with 1 or 2 slender leaves. Branches of the meagre panicle erect, bearing numerous distant greenish or brownish heads of 3-6 flowers each. Outer sepals mucronate or cuspidate, and longer than the rounded inner ones. Pod short-pointed, light-brown. Seeds spindle-shaped. - Lake- and river-margins, common.

14. J. nodo'sus, L. Stem erect, 6-15 inches high, slender, from a creeping slender and tuber-bearing rootstock, usually with 2 or 3 slender leaves. Heads few, 8-20-flowered, and overtopped by the involucral leaf. Flowers brown, Pod slender, taper-pointed, 1-celled. Seeds obovate, mucronate. - Common.

Var. megacepha'lus, Torr., has large 30-80-flowered heads.

+ + Stamens S. Seeds tailed.

15. J. Canadensis, J. Gay, var. coareta'tus, Engel.

Stems slender, 9-18 inches high, tufted, bearing 2 or 3 leaves. Panicle somewhat erect, contracted; the heads 3-5-flowered, deep-brown. Pod prismatic, abruptly pointed, deep-brown. Seeds slender, with short tails. - A very late-flowering species.

Var. longieauda'tus, Engelm., is taller, and the heads are many-flowered.