Herbs distinguished by a 2-lipped or more or less irregular corolla, stamens usually 4 and didynamous, or only 2, (or in Verbascum 5) and a 2-celled and usually many-seeded ovary. Style 1; stigma entire or 2-lobed.
* Corolla wheel-shaped, and only slightly irregular.
1. Verbas'cum. Stamens (with anthers) 5. Flowers in a long terminal spike. Corolla 5-parted, nearly regular. Filaments (or some of them) woolly.
2. Veron'ica. Stamens only 2; filaments long and slender. Corolla mostly 4-parted, nearly or quite regular. Pod fiattish. Flowers solitary in the axils, or forming a terminal raceme or spike.
* * Corolla 2-lipped, or tubular and irregular.
+ Upper lip of the corolla embracing the lower in the bud, except occasionally in Mimulus.
3Linaria. Corolla personate (Fig. 181, Part I..), with a longer spur beneath. Stamens 4. Flowers yellow, in a crowded raceme.
4. Scrophularia. Corolla tubular, somewhat inflated, 5-lobed; the 4 upper lobes erect, the lower one spreading. Stamens with anthers 4, the rudiment of a fifth in the form of a scale on the upper lip of the corolla. Flowers small and dingy, forming a narrow terminal panicle. Stem 4-sided.
5. Collins'ia. Corolla 2-cleft, the short tube saccate on the upper side; the middle lobe of the lower lip sac-like and enclosing the 4 declined stamens; the upper lip 2-cleft, the lobes partly turned backward. Fifth stamen rudimentary. Leaves opposite. Flowers blue and white, in umbel-like clusters.
6. Chelo'ne. Corolla inflated-tubular (Fig. 180, Part I.). Stamens 4, with woolly filaments and anthers, and a fifth filament without an anther. Flowers white, in a close terminal spike.
7. Pentste'mon. Corolla 2-lipped, gradually widening upwards. Stamens 4, with a fifth sterile filament, the latter yellow-bearded. Flowers white or purplish, in a loose panicle.
8. Mim'ulus. Calyx 5-angled and 5-toothed. Upper lip of the corolla erect or reflexed-spreading, the lower spreading, 3-lobed. Stamens 4, alike; no rudiment of a fifth. Stigma 2-lipped. Flowers blue or yellow, solitary on axillary peduncles.
9. Grati'ola. Corolla tubular and 2-lipped. Stamens with anthers only 2, included. Flowers with a yellowish tube, on axillary peduncles, solitary. Style dilated at the apex.
10. Ilysan'thes. Corolla tubular and 2-lipped. Stamens with anthers only 2, included; also a pair of filaments which are two-lobed but without anthers. Flowers purplish, axillary. Style 2-lipped at the apex.
+ + Lower lip of the corolla embracing the upper in the bud.
11. Gerar'dia. Corolla funnel-form, swelling above, the 5 spreading lobes more or less unequal. Stamens 4, strongly didynamous, hairy. Style long, enlarged at the apex. Flowers purple or yellow, solitary on axillary peduncles, or sometimes forming a raceme.
12. Castille'- ia. Corolla tubular and 2-lipped, its tube included in the tubular and flattened calyx; the upper lip long and narrow and flattened laterally, the lower short and 3-lobed. Stamens 4, didynamous. Floral leaves scarlet (rarely yellow) in our species. Corolla pale yellow.
13. Orthocarp'us. Corolla tubular and 2-lipped. Calyx tubular-campanulate, 4-cleft. Upper lip of the corolla much narrower than the inflated lower one. Flowers golden yellow, in a dense spike. - N.W.
14. Euphrasia. Calyx 4-cleft. Upper lip of the corolla erect, 2-lobed, the sides turned back; the lower spreading. Stamens 4, under the upper lip. Very small herbs, with whitish or bluish spiked flowers. (Chiefly on the sea-coast, and north of Lake Superior).
15. Karl sin. Calyx 4-cleft. Upper lip of the corolla entire, the sides not turned back. Flowers small, rose-red, in loose spikes. Small herbs with opposite sessile leaves. - Atl. sea-coast chiefly.
16. Rhinan'thus. Calyx flat, greatly inflated in fruit, 4-toothed.
Upper lip of the corolla arched, flat, with a minute tooth on each side below the apex. Stamens 4. Flowers yellow, solitary in the axils, nearly sessile, the whole forming a crowded 1-sided spike. (Chiefly on the sea-coast, and north of Lake Superior.)
17. Pedicula'ris. Calyx split in front, not inflated in fruit. Corolla 2-lipped, the upper lip arched or hooded, incurved, flat, 2-toothed under the apex. Stamens 4. Pod flat, somewhat sword-shaped.
18. Melampy'rum. Calyx 4-cleft, the lobes sharp-pointed. Corolla greenish-yellow; upper lip arched, compressed, the lower 3-lobed at the apex. Stamens 4; anthers hairy. Pod 1-4-seeded, flat, oblique.. Upper leaves larger than the lower ones and fringed with bristly teeth at the base.
1. V. Thap'sus, L. (Common Mullein.) A tall and very-woolly herb, with the simple stem winged by the decurrent bases of the leaves. Flowers yellow, forming a dense spike. - Fields and roadsides everywhere.
2. V. Blattaria, L. (Moth M.) Stem slender, nearly smooth. Lower leaves petioled. doubly serrate; the upper partly clasping. Flowers whitish with a purple tinge, in a loose raceme. Filaments all violet-bearded. - Roadsides; not common northward.