Herbs, with a deeply 4-lobed ovary, forming 4 seed-like nutlets, as in the last Order, but the corolla is regularly 5-lobed, with 5 stamens inserted upon its tube.
* Corolla without any scales in the throat.
1. E'chium. Corolla with a funnel-form tube and a spreading border of 5 somewhat unequal lobes. Stamens exserted, unequal. Flowers bright blue, with a purplish tinge, in racemed clusters. Plant bristly.
* * Corolla with 5 scales completely closing the throat.
2. Sym'phytum. Corolla tubular-funnel-form with short spreading lobes; scales awl-shaped. Flowers yellowish-white, in nodding raceme-like clusters, the latter often in pairs. Nutlets smooth. Coarse hairy herbs.
3. Echinosper'mum. Nutlets prickly on the margin. Corolla salvershaped, lobes rounded; scales short and blunt. Flowers blue, small,in leafy-bracted racemes. Plant rough-hairy.
4. Cynoglos'sum. Nutlets prickly all over. Corolla funnel-form; scales blunt. Flowers red-purple or pale blue, in racemes which are naked above, but usually leafy-bracted below. Strong-scented coarse herbs.
5. Lycop'sis. Corolla funnel-shaped, the scales in the throat bristly.
Flowers blue, in leafy raceme-like clusters. Nutlets rough-bristly, as is the whole plant.
* * * Corolla open, the scales or folds not sufficient to completely close the throat.
6. Merten'sia. Corolla bell-funnel-shaped, mostly with 5 small glandular folds in the open throat. Calyx deeply 5-cleft. Style long and thread-form. Nutlets smooth or wrinkled. Flowers purplish-blue or white, in loose and short raceme-like clusters, only the lower one leafy-bracted. Pedicels slender.
7. Onosmo'dium. Corolla tubular, the 5 lobes acute and erect or converging. Anthers mucronate; filaments very short. Style thread-form, much exserted. Flowers greenish- or yellowish-white. Rather tall stout plants, shaggy with spreading bristly hairs, or rough with short appressed bristles. Nutlets smooth.
8. Lithosper'mum. Corolla funnel-form or salver-shaped, the 6 lobes of the spreading limb rounded. Anthers almost sessile. Root mostly red. Flowers small and almost white, or large and deep yellow, scattered and spiked and leafy-bracted. Nutlets smooth or wrinkled.
9. Myoso'tis. Corolla salver-shaped, with a very short tube, the lobes convolutein the bud; scales or appendages of the throat blunt and arching. Flowers blue, in (so-called) racemes, without bracts. Low plants, mostly soft-hairy. Nutlets smooth.
Tourn. Viper's Bugloss. E. vulga're, L. (Blue-weed.) Stem erect, 2 feet high. Leaves sessile, linear-lanceolate. Flowers showy, in lateral clusters, the whole forming a long narrow raceme. - Roadsides; common in eastern Ontario and rapidly spreading westward.
Tourn. Comfrey. S. offleina'le, L. (Common Comfrey.) Stem winged above by the decurrent bases of the leaves, branched. Leaves ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate. - Moist soil; escaped from gardens.
1. E. Lap'pula. Lehm. A very common roadside weed, 1-2 feet high, hispid, branching above. Leaves lanceolate, rough. Nutlets warty on the back, with a double row of prickles on the margin. Pedicels stout, not deflexed. Calyx becoming foliaceous.
2. E. floribun'dum, Lehm. Stem strict, 2 feet high or more, not hispid. Leaves oblong- to linear-lanceolate, the lowest tapering into margined petioles. Racemes numerous, rather strict. Pedicels slender, deflexed in fruit. Nutlets rough and margined with a close row of flat awl-shaped prickles. - Chiefly N.W.
3. E. Virgin'icum, Lehm. (Cynoglossum Morisoni, DC.) (Beggar's Lice.) Stem 2-4 feet high; hispid. Lower leaves round-ovate or cordate, slender-petioled; upper ones tapering at both ends. Racemes widely spreading. Pedicels slender, deflexed in fruit. Nutlets prickly all over. - Open woods and thickets.
1. C. offleina'le, L. (Common Hound's Tongue.) Flowers red-purple. Upper leaves lanceolate, sessile. Stem soft-pubescent. - Nutlets rather flat. - A common weed in fields and along roadsides.
2. C. Virgin'icum, L. (Wild Comfrey.) Flowers pale blue. Stem roughish with spreading hairs. Leaves few, lanceolate-oblong, clasping. Racemes corymbed, raised on a long, naked peduncle. - Rich woods.
L. Bugloss. L. arven'sis, L. (Small Bugloss.) Very rough-bristly, 1 foot high. Leaves lanceolate. - Dry or sandy fields, chiefly eastward.
1. M. paniculata, Don. Filaments broad and short. Nutlets wrinkled when dry. Plant more or less hairy, erect, loosely branched. - N. W.
2. M. marit'ima, Don. (Sea-Lungwort.) Corolla white, trumpet-shaped, conspicuously 5-lobed, throat crested. Leaves fleshy, glaucous, ovate to spathulate. Stems spreading, often decumbent. Filaments longer and narrower than the anthers. Nutlets shining. - Atl. sea-coast.
1. 0. Carolinia'num, DC. Stem stout, 3-4 feet high. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, acute. Lobes of the corolla ovate-triangular, very hairy outside- Banks of streams.
2. 0. Virgina'num, DC. Stem slender, 1-2 feet high. Leaves narrowly oblong. Lobes of the corolla lance-awl-shaped, sparingly bearded outside with long bristles. - Banks and hillsides; not common.
Tourn. Gromwell. Puccoon. * Corolla almost white. Nutlets wrinkled, gray.
1. L. arven'se, L. (Corn Gromwell.) Stem 6-12 inches high, erect. Leaves lanceolate or linear. - Waste grounds and in wheat-fields.
* * Corolla deep yellow. Nutlets smooth and shining.
2. L. hirtum, Lehm. (Hairy Puccoon.) Stem 1-2 feet high, hispid. Stem-leaves lanceolate or linear; those of the flowering branches ovate-oblong, ciliate. Flowers peduncled. Corolla woolly at the base inside. - Dry woods.
3. L. canes'cens, Lehm. (Hoary Puccoon. Alkanet.) Stem 6-15 inches high, soft-hairy. Corolla naked at the base inside. Flowers sessile. Limb of the corolla smaller, and the calyx shorter, than in No. 2. - Open woods and plains.
4. L. angustifo'lium, Michx. Erect or diffusely branched from the base, somewhat hoary. Leaves all linear. Flow-ors pedicelled, leafy-bracted, of two sorts: the earlier large and conspicuous, the later small and pale. - N. W.
* * * Corolla greenish-white or cream-colour. Nutlets smooth and shining, mostly white.
5. L. officinale, L. (Common Gromwell.) Much branched above. Leaves broadly lanceolate, acute. Corolla exceeding the calyx. - Roadsides and fields.
6. L. latifo'lium, Michx. Loosely branched above. Leaves ovate and ovate-lanceolate, mostly taper-pointed. Corolla shorter than the calyx. - Borders of woods.
1. M. palus'tris, Withering. (Forget-me-not.) Stem ascending from a creeping base, about a foot high, smoothish, loosely branched. Leaves rough-pubescent. Calyx open in fruit, its lobes much shorter than its tube. Corolla sky-blue, with a yellow eye. Pedicels spreading. - Wet places.
2. M. laxa, Lehm. Stem very slender, decumbent, from thread-like subterranean shoots. Pubescence all appressed. Calyx open in front, its lobes as long as its tube. Corolla paler blue. - Wet places.
3. M. arven'sis, Hoffm. Stem erect or ascending, hirsute. Calyx closing in fruit. Corolla blue, rarely white. Pedicels spreading in fruit and longer than the 5-cleft equal calyx. Racemes naked at the base. - Fields.
4. M. verna, Nutt., differs from the last in having a very small white corolla, pedicels erect in fruit, and the racemes leafy at the base. The calyx, also, is unequally 5-toothed and hispid. - Dry hills.