Smooth herbs, distinguished by having a 1-celled ovary with seeds on the walls, either in lines or on the whole inner surface. Leaves mostly opposite, simple, and sessile, but in one Genus alternate and compound. Stamens as many as the lobes of the regular corolla and alternate with them. Stigmas 2. Calyx persistent. Juice colourless and bitter.
1. Fra'sera. Corolla wheel-shaped, 4-parted; a fringed glandular spot on each lobe. Flowers light greenish-yellow, with small purple-brown spots.
2. Hale'nia. Corolla 4-lobed, the lobes all spurred at the base. Flowers yellowish or purplish, somewhat cymose.
3. Gentia' na. Corolla not spurred, 4-5-lobed, mostly funnel-form or bell-shaped, generally with teeth or folds in the sinuses of the lobes. Stigmas 2, persistent. Pod oblong. Seeds innumerable. Flowers showy, in late summer and autumn.
4. Menyan'thes. A bog-plant. Corolla short, funnel-form, 5-lobed, densely white-bearded on the upper face. Leaves alternate, compound, of 3 oval leaflets. The flowers in a raceme at the summit of a naked scape, white or tinged with pink.
5. Nimnan'themiim. An aquatic, with simple round-heart-shaped floating leaves on long petioles. Corolla white, wheel-shaped, 5-parted, bearded at the base only. Flowers in an umbel borne on the petiole.
F. Carolinien'sis, Walt. Tall and showy. Leaves whorled, mostly in fours. Root thick. Flowers numerous in a pyramidal panicle. - Dry soil.
Bork. Spurred Gentian. H. deflex'a, Griseb. Stem erect, 9-18 inches high. Leaves 3-5-nerved, those at the base of the stem oblong-spathulate, petioled; the upper acute and sessile or nearly so. Spurs of the corolla curved. - Not common in Ontario; common on the Lower St. Lawrence.
1. G. crinita, Froel. (Fringed Gentian.) Corolla funnel-form, 4-lobed, the lobes fringed on the margins; no plaited folds in the sinuses. Flowers sky-blue, solitary, on long naked stalks, terminating the stem or simple branches. Ovary lanceolate. Leaves lance-shaped or ovate-lanceolate. - Low grounds.
2. G. deton'sa, Fries., (G. serrata, Gunner.) (Smaller Fringed G.) is distinguished from No. 1 by the shorter or almost inconspicuous fringe of the corolla, the linear or lance-linear leaves, and the broader ovary. - Moist grounds, chiefly in the Niagara District.
3. G. quinqueflo'ra, Lam. (Five-flowered G.) Corolla tubular-funnel-form, pale-blue, no folds in the sinuses.
Calyx 5-cleft, the lobes awl-shaped. Lobes of the corolla triangular-ovate, bristle-pointed. Anthers separate. Stem slender and branching, a foot high, the branches racemed or panicled, about 5-flowered at the summit. - Dry hill-sides.
4. G. puber'ula, Michx. Stems erect or ascending, 8-16 inches high, minutely rough above. Leaves rigid, lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 1-2 inches long. Flowers mostly clustered. Calyx-lobes lanceolate, much shorter than the bell-funnel-form open bright blue corolla. - High Park, Toronto.
5. G. alba, Muhl. (Whitish G.) Corolla inflated-club-shaped, at length open, 5-lobed, the lobes about twice as long as the toothed appendages in the sinuses. Flowers greenish-white or yellowish, sessile, crowded in a terminal cluster. Anthers usually cohering. Leaves lance-ovate, with a clasping heart-shaped base. - Low grounds.
6. G. Andrews'ii, Griseb. (Closed G.) Corolla inflated-club-shaped, closed at the mouth, the apparent lobes being really the large fringed-toothed appendages. Flowers blue, in a close sessile terminal cluster. Anthers cohering. Leaves ovate-lanceolate from a narrower base. - Low grounds; common northward, flowering later than No. 3.
7. G. Amarel'la, L., var. acuta, Hook. Corolla somewhat funnel-form, mostly blue, its lobes entire, acute, with a fringed crown at their base. Calyx-lobes (4-5) lanceolate or linear, foliaceous. - Atl. Prov. chiefly.
Var. Stricta, Watson, has stem and branches strict, a whitish corolla, and a less deeply cleft calyx. - N.W.
8. G. linea'ris, Froel., var. latifolia, Gray. Flowers in a terminal cluster with a leafy involucre. Corolla blue, narrow funnel-form, with roundish-ovate lobes, and broad appendages. Leaves sessile, oblong-linear to ovate-lanceolate, smooth. Seeds winged. - Boggy places, Atl. Prov. and northward.
Tourn. Buckbean. G. trifoliata, L. A common plant in bogs and wet places, northward. The bases of the long petioles sheathe the lower part of the scape, or thick rootstock, from which they spring. Plant about a foot high.
Gmelin. Floating Heart. L. lacunos'um, Griseb. In shallow waters, northern Ontario.