Trees with alternate pinnate leaves and no stipules. Flowers monoecious. Sterile flowers in catkins. Fertile flowers solitary or in small clusters, with a regular 3-4-lobed calyx adherent to the ovary. Fruit a sort of drupe, the fleshy outer layers at length becoming dry and forming a husk, the inner layer hard and bony and forming a nut-shell. Seed solitary in the fruit, very large and 4-lobed. This Order comprises the "Walnuts, Butternuts, and Hickories.
1. Jug'lans. Sterile flowers In solitary catkins from the previous year's wood. Filaments of the numerous stamens very short. Fertile flowers on peduncles at the ends of the branches. Calyx 4-toothed, with small petals at the sinuses. Styles and stigmas 2, the latter fringed. Exocarp or husk drying without splitting. Shell of the nut very rough and irregularly furrowed.
2. Car'ya. Sterile flowers in slender clustered catkins. Stamens 3-10. with very short filaments. Fertile flowers in small clusters at the ends of the branches. Calyx 4-toothed; no petals. Stigmas 2 or 4, large. Exocarp 4-valved, drying and splitting away from the very smooth and bony nut-shell.
1. J. ciner'ea, L. (Butternut.) Leaflets oblong-lanceolate, pointed, serrate. Petioles and branchlets clammy. Fruit oblong, clammy. - Rich woods.
2. J. ni'gra, L. (Black "Walnut.) Leaflets ovate-lanceolate, taper-pointed, serrate. Petioles downy but not clammy.
' Fruit spherical. Wood a darker brown than in the Butternut. - Rich woods; rare northward.
1. C. alba, Nutt, (Shell-bark Hickory.) Leaflets 5, the lower pair much smaller than the others. Husk of the fruit splitting completely into 4 valves. Nut flattish-globu-lar, mucronate. Bark of the trunk rough, scaling off in rough strips. - Rich woods.
2. C. tomento'sa, Nutt. ("White-heart Hickory.) Sparingly found in the Niagara district and south-westward.
Leaflets 7-9. Bark close but not shaggy, and not scaling off on the old trunks. Husk as in the last. Catkins, shoots, and lower surface of the leaves tomentose when young. Nut globular.
3. C. ama'ra, Nutt. (Swamp Hickory or Bitternut.) Leaflets 7-11. Husk of the fruit splitting half way down. Nut spherical, short-pointed. Bark smooth, not scaling off. - Moist ground.
4. C. porci'na, Nutt. (Pig-nut. Broom-Hickory.) Leaflets 5-7. Shoots, etc., glabrous. Husk as in the last. Nut oblong or oval. - Niagara district, and south-westward.