Shrubs or trees, with alternate simple leaves, deciduous stipules, and monoecious flowers. Sterile flowers in catkins (but in Beech in small heads); the fertile ones solitary or clustered, and furnished with an involucre which forms a scaly cup or a bur surrounding the nut.

Synopsis Of The Genera

1. Quercus. Sterile flowers with a calyx including few or several stamens with slender filaments. Fertile flowers scattered or somewhat clustered, each in a scaly involucre or cupule. Nut (acorn) rounded, the base enclosed by the cupule. (Part I., sec. 71.)

2. Casta'nea. Sterile flowers in long slender catkins. Calyx 6-parted.

Fertile flowers usually 3 in each involucre, the latter prickly, forming a bur. Calyx 6-lobed. Stigmas bristle-shaped. Nuts enclosed (mostly 2 or 3 together) in the prickly 4-valved involucre, flattened when there are more than one.

3. Fag us. Sterile flowers in a small head on drooping peduncles.

Calyx bell-shaped. Fertile flowers in pairs in the involucre, which consists of awl-shaped bractlets grown together at the bases. Calyx-lobes awl-shaped. Nuts 3-angled, generally in pairs in the bur-like 4-valved cupule. Bark close, smooth and light gray.

4. Cer'ylus. Sterile flowers in drooping catkins. No calyx. Stamens 8 (with 1-celled anthers), and 2 small bractlets under each bract. Fertile flowers in a small scaly head; 1 ovary, surmounted by 2 long red stigmas, under each scale, and accompanied by a pair of bractlets which, in fruit, enlarge and form a leaf-like or tubular fringed or toothed involucre closely enveloping each nut. Sterile catkins from the axils of the previous year. Fertile flowers terminating the new shoots.

5. Os trya. Sterile flowers in drooping catkins. Calyx wanting.

Stamens several under each bract, but not accompanied by bractlets. Fertile flowers in short catkins, 2 under each bract, each ovary tipped with 2 long stigmas, and surrounded by a tubular bractlet which, in fruit, becomes a greenish-white inflated bag, having the small nut in the bottom. 6. Carpi'nus. Sterile flowers in drooping catkins. Calyx wanting. Stamens several under each bract; no bractlets. Fertile flowers much as in Ostrya, but the bractlets surrounding the ovaries are not tubular but open, and in fruit become leaf-like, one on each side of the small nut.

1. Quercus. L. Oak

* Acorns ripening the first year, and therefore borne on the new shoots. Lobes or teeth of the leaves not bristle-pointed.

1. Q. alba, L. ("White Oak.) A large tree. Leaves (when mature) smooth, bright green above, whitish beneath, obliquely cut into few or several oblong entire lobes. The oblong nut much larger than the saucer-shaped rough cupule. - Rich woods.

2. Q. macrocar'pa, Michx. (Bur Oak. Mossy-cup White Oak.) A medium-sized tree. Leaves deeply lobed, smooth above, pale or downy beneath. Acorn broadly ovoid, half or altogether covered by the deep cup, the upper scales of which taper into bristly points, making a fringed border. Cup varying greatly in size, often very large. - Rich soil.

3. Q. bi'color, Willd. (Swamp White Oak.) A tall tree. Leaves sinuate-toothed, but hardly lobed, wedge-shaped at the base, downy or hoary beneath, the main veins 6-8 pairs. Cup nearly hemispherical, about half as long as the oblong-ovoid acorn, sometimes with a fringed border. Peduncles in fruit longer than the petiole. - Low grounds.

4. Q. Pri'nus, L. (Chestnut Oak.) A small tree. Leaves minutely downy beneath, the main veins 10-16 pairs, sinuate-toothed, acute or obtuse at the base. Peduncle shorter than the petiole. Cup hemispherical; acorn as in the last. - Lake Erie coast.

Var. hu'miliS, Marsh, {Q. prinoides, Willd., in Macoun's Catalogue) is much more abundant with us than the species itself. It has the characters of the species, but is a shrub, 2-4 feet high. Fruit sessile or nearly so.

* * Acorns ripening the second year, and therefore borne on the previous year's wood, below the leaves of the season. Lobes or teeth of the leaves bristle-pointed.

5. Q. coccin'ea, Wang. (Scarlet Oak.) A large tree. Leaves bright green, shining above, turning red in autumn, rounded at the base, deeply pinnatifid, the lobes divergent and sparingly cut-toothed. Bark gray outside, reddish inside. Cup top-shaped or hemispherical, with a more or less conical base, covering half or more of the rather small acorn.

Var. tinctoria, Gray. (Q. tinctoria, Bartram, in Macoun's Catalogue.) (Quercitron. Yellow-barked or Black Oak.) Leaves usually less deeply pinnatifid, slender-petioled, rather rounded at the base, rusty-downy when young, smooth and shining above when mature, often slightly pubescent beneath, turning brownish, orange, or dull red in autumn, Cup as in the species, but the bark darker and rougher and yellow or orange inside. - Western Ontario; mostly in dry soil, but occasionally in moist places.

Var. ambig'ua, Gray. Leaves closely resembling those of Q. rubra, but the fruit is that of Q. coccinea. - Belleisle Bay, King's Co., N.B.

6. Q. rubra, L. (Red Oak.) A large tree. Leaves moderately pinnatifid, turning dark-red in the autumn. Cup saucer-shaped, sessile or nearly so, very much shorter than the oblong-ovoid acorn. - Rich and poor soil.

7. Q. palustris, Du Roi. (Pin Oak.) A medium-sized tree. Cup flat-saucer-shaped, very much shorter than the ovoid-globose acorn, which is about half an inch long. Leaves deeply pinnatifid, with divergent lobes and rounded sinuses. - Niagara district and south-westward.

2. Casta' Nea

Tourn. Chestnut. C. vesea, L., var. America'na, Michx. (C vulgaris, var. Americana, A. DC, in Macoun's Catalogue.) (Chestnut.) A large tree. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, pointed, coarsely and sharply serrate, acute at the base. Nuts 2 or 3 in each bur. - South-western Ontario.

3. Fagus

Tourn Beech. F. ferrugin'ea, Ait. (American Beech.) A very common tree in rich woods, the branches horizontal. Leaves oblong-ovate, taper-pointed, toothed, the very straight veins terminating in the teeth.

4. Corylus. Tourn. Hazel-nut. Filbert

1. C. America'na, Walt. (Wild Hazel-nut.) Leaves roundish heart-shaped. Involucre spreading out above, leaflike and cut-toothed. - Chiefly in south-Western Ontario; in thickets.

2. C. rostrata, Ait. (Beaked Hazel-nut.] A rather common shrub, easily distinguished from No. 1 by the involucre, which is prolonged into a narrow tube much beyond the nut, and is densely bristly-hairy.

5. Os'trya

Micheli. Hop-Hornbeam. Ironwood. O. Virgln'ica, Willd. (Iron-wood.) A slender tree with brownish furrowed bark. Leaves oblong - ovate, taper-pointed, sharply doubly serrate. Fertile catkin like a hop in appearance. Wood very hard and close. - Rich woods.

6. Carpi'nus

L. Hornbeam. C. America'na, Michx. (Blue or Water Beech.) Small trees with furrowed trunks and close smooth gray bark. Leaves ovate - oblong, pointed, doubly serrate. - Along streams. Resembling a beech in general aspect, but with inflorescenee like that of Iron-wood.