Trees or shrubs with resinous juice and mostly monoecious flowers, these in catkins, except the last Genus (Taxus), in which the fertile flower is solitary and the fruit berrylike. Leaves awl-shaped or needle-shaped. (See Part I., Cap. xvi.. for descriptions of typical plants.)- The Order comprises three well-marked Suborders.

Suborder I. Abietineae. (Pine Family Proper.)

Fruit a true cone, the imbricated scales in the axils of bracts. Ovules 2 on the inside of each scale at the base, in fruit coming off with a wing attached to each. Leaves scattered or fascicled. (Part I., Figs. 197, 198.) * Cones not ripening till the second year.

1. Finns. Leaves needle-shaped, 2-5 in a cluster, evergreen, in the axil of a thin scale. Sterile catkins in spikes at the bases of the new shoots, consisting of many almost sessile anthers spirally inserted on the axis. Cones more or less woody, the scales widely spreading when ripe. Cotyledons of the embryo several.

* * Cones ripening the first year.

+ Cones pendulous, bracts smaller than the scales.

2. Pl'cea. Leaves sessile, keeled on both sides, scattered.

3. Tsu'ga. Leaves petioled, flat, scattered, whitened beneath.

+ + Cones erect, the bracts longer than the scales.

4. A' bies. Leaves linear or needle-shaped, scattered uniformly along the new shoots,evergreen. Sterile catkins in the axils of last year's leaves. Cones with thin scales.

5. Larix. Leaves needle-shaped, clustered or fascicled on lateral spurs of last year's wood, many in each bundle, falling off in the autumn; those on the new shoots scattered, but deciduous like the rest.

Suborder It. Cupressineae. (Cypress F.)

Fertile flowers of only a few scales, these not in the axils of bracts, forming in fruit either a very small loose and dry cone, or a sort of false berry owing to the thickening of the scales.

* Flowers monoecious. Fruit a small loose cone.

6. Thuja. Leaves some aid-shaped, others scale-like, closely imbricated on the flat branches. Catkins ovoid, terminal. * * Flowers mostly dioecious. Fruit berry-like, black with a bloom.

7. .Junip'erus. Leaves awl-shaped or scale-like, sometimes of both shapes, evergreen, prickly-pointed, glaucous-white on the upper surface, and in whorls of 3, or opposite.

Suborder III. Taxineae. (Yew Family.)

Fertile flower solitary, consisting of a naked ovule surrounded by a disk which becomes pulpy and berry-like in fruit, enclosing the nut-like seed. Berry red.

8. Taxus. Flowers chiefly dioecious. Leaves evergreen, mucronate, rigid, scattered. - A low straggling bush, usually in the shade of other evergreens.

1. Pinus. Tourn. Pine

1. P. resino'sa, Ait. (Red Pine.) Leaves in twos, slender. Bark rather smooth, reddish. - Common northward.

2. P. Banksia'na, Lambert. (Gray or Northern Scrub Pine.) Leaves in twos, about 1 inch long. Cones conical, usually curved, smooth and hard, about one and one-half inches long. - Barren soil, eastward and northward.

3. P. rig'ida, Mill. (Pitch Pine.) Leaves in threes. Scales of the cones tipped with a short stout recurved prickle. - Atl. Prov.

4. P. stro'bus, L. (White Pine.) Leaves in fives, slender. Bark smooth except on old trees, not reddish. - Common.

2. Pi'cea. Link. Spruce

1. P. nigra, Link. {Abies nigra, Poir.) (Black Spruce.) Leaves needle-shaped and 4-sided, pointing in all directions. Cones hanging, persistent, scales with thin edges. - Swamps and cold woods.

2. P. alba, Link. (Abies alba, Michx.) (White Spruce.)

Leaves as in No. 1. Cones hanging, deciduous, the scales with thickish edges. - Swamps and cold woods. 3. TSU'GA, Carriere. Hemlock. T. Canadensis, Carr. (Abies Canadensis, Michx.) (Hemlock Spruce.) Leaves flat, lighter beneath, pointing out in two directions, i.e., right and left on each side of the branch, obtuse. Cones hanging, persistent. - Hilly or rocky woods. 4. A'bies, Link. Fir. A. balsa'mea, Miller. (Balsam Fir.) Leaves flat, the lower surface whitish and the midrib prominent, crowded, pointing mostly right and left on the branches. Cones erect on the upper sides of the branches, violet-coloured, the scales slender-pointed. - Damp woods and swamps. 5. Larix, Tourn. Larch. L. America'na, Michx. (American Larch. Tamarac) A slender and very graceful tree with soft leaves in fascicles, falling off in autumn. - Swamps.

6. Thuja

Tourn. Arbor Vitae. T. occidenta'lis, L. (American Arbor Vitae.) The well-known cedar of cedar-swamps. - Common. 1. Junip'erus, L. Juniper.

1. J. commu'nis, L. (Common Juniper.) A spreading shrub with ascending stems, growing on dry hill-sides. Leaves in whorls of 3, whitish above, prickly-pointed.

2. J. Virginia'na, L. (Red Cedar.) A shrub or small tree with mostly opposite leaves of two forms, viz.: awl-shaped and loose, and scale-shaped and appressed. Fruit small, erect. Wood red and odorous. - Dry sterile soil.

3. J. Sabi'na, L., var. proeumbens, Pursh. A procumbent or creeping shrub with two sorts of leaves, awl-shaped and scale-shaped, the latter acute. Fruit on short recurved peduncles. - Rocky banks and margins of swamps.

8. Taxus

Tourn. Yew. T. baccata, L., var. Canadensis, Gray. (American Yew. Ground Hemlock.) A low straggling shrub. Leaves green on both sides. Berry globular, red.