Herbs, with alternate stipulate leaves. Flowers irregular, the lower of the 5 petals being spurred. Sepals 5, persistent. Stamens 5, the anthers more or less coherent, and surrounding the pistil. Fruit a 1-celled pod, splitting into 3 valves. Seeds in three rows on the walls of the ovary.
1. Vi'ola. Sepals auricled at the base. Lower petal distinctly spurred. Stamens only slightly, if at all, coherent; the 2 lower ones spurred. 1. So'lea. Sepals not auricled. Lower petal saccate at the base. Stamens completely united and sheathing the ovary. Plant 1-2 feet high.
* Stemless Violets; leaves and scapes all from root-stocks. + Flowers white.
1. V. blanda, Willd. (Sweet White V.) Lower petal streaked with purple. Leaves round-heart-shaped or reni-form. Petals beardless. Flower sweet-scented. - Swamps and wet meadows, in spring.
Var. renifo'lia, Gray, has leaves much larger and more pubescent than those of the preceding. - Dry cedar swamps, and ravines in rich woods.
2. V. lanceolata, L. (Lance-leaved V.) Flowers white. Petals beardless. Leaves lanceolate, erect, tapering into a long, margined petiole, nearly entire. - Damp ground, mostly eastward.
3. V. primulaefo'lia, L. (Primrose-leaved V.) Flowers white, lateral petals usually somewhat bearded. Leaves ovate or oblong, heart-shaped, or abrupt at the base. - Damp or dry ground; Atl. Prov.
+ + Flowers blue or purple.
4. V. pedata, L. (Bird-foot V.) Nearly smooth. Root-stock short, thick and erect. Leaves all deeply cut into 3-5 segments, the lateral divisions 2-3-parted. Flower about an inch across; stigma large and not beaked. - N W.
5. V. pedatif'ida, G. Don. Very much like the last, but the flowers are smaller and of a deeper blue, and the stigma is beaked. - Prairies, N. W.
6. V. Selkirk!!, Pursh. (Great-spurred V.) A small and delicate plant, distinguished by the slender root-stock, and the very large spur, thickened at the end. The pale violet petals also are beardless. - Damp, shady places.
7. V. palustris, L. (Marsh V.) Very similar in foliage, etc., to No. 1, but the flowers are pale lilac, and the root-stock is jointed. - Wet swamps amongst moss.
8. V. palmata, L. (Common Blue V.) Leaves on very long petioles, cordate or reniform, the sides folded inwards when young, the later ones variously lobed or parted. Lateral petals bearded. Spur short and thick - Low grounds everywhere.
Var. cucullata, Gray, has the later leaves merely cre-nate.
9. V. odorata, L. (English Sweet V.) has escaped from gardens in some places. Flowers very fragrant.
10. V. sagittata, Ait. (Arrow-leaved V.) Smoothish. Leaves cordate, halberd-shaped, or sagittate, slightly toothed, the first ones on short and margined petioles. Side-petals bearded. - Dry hill-sides and old pastures.
+ + + Flowers yellow.
11. V. rotundifo'lia, Michx. (Round-leaved V.) Leaves round-ovate, cordate, repand-crenulate, about an inch wide at flowering, increasing later to 3 or 4 inches, and then flat on the ground, shining above. Lateral petals bearded and marked with brown lines. Spur very short. - Cold woods, chiefly eastward.
* * Leafy-stemmed Violets. + Flowers yellow.
12. V. pubes'cens, Ait. (Downy Yellow V.) Plant downy, 6-12 inches high. Leaves broadly cordate, coarsely serrate; stipules large, entire. Lower petals veined with purple. Spur very short. - Rich woods.
Var scabrillscula, Torr, and Gray, is smaller, and less pubescent, often nearly smooth.
13. V. Nuttal'lii, Pursh. Low, densely pubescent, or sometimes nearly glabrous. Leaves oblong-ovate or oblong, obtuse, entire or obscurely sinuate, decurrent on the petiole; stipules mostly narrow, entire. - Dry soil, N.W.
+ + Flowers not yellow.
14. V. Canadensis, L. (Canada V.) Tall, often a foot high. Leaves large, cordate, serrate, pointed. Petals white inside, purplish outside. Spur very short. - Flowering all summer.
15. V. cani'na, L., var. sylvestris, Kegel. (Dog V.) Low, spreading by runners. Leaves broadly cordate or reniform, with fringed-toothed stipules. Spur cylindrical, half as long as the petals, which are pale purple. - Wet places.
Var. lon'gipes, Watson, of the N. W. plains, has ovate leaves, obscurely crenate. Spur as long as the sepals, stout, obtuse, and nearly straight.
16. V. Striata, Ait. (Pale V.) Stem angular, 6-10 inches high. Leaves cordate, finely serrate; stipules fringed-toothed. Spur thickish, much shorter than the cream-coloured or white petals. - Low grounds.
17. V. rostrata, Pursh. (Long-spurred V.) Distinguished at once by its extremely long straight spur. Petals violet-coloured.
18. V. tri'color, L., var. arvensis, DC. (Pansy.) Stipules large, leaf-like and lyrate-pinnatifid. Stem angled and branched. Leaves roundish. Petals variable in colour, about as long as the sepals. - Dry soil.
S. con'color, Ging. A homely herb with oblong entire leaves pointed at each end, and 1-3 small greenish-white flowers in the axils, on short recurved pedicels. Pod an inch long. - Rare; Niagara River and the banks of the Thames.