Shrubs or trees (rarely herbs) with simple leaves. Calyx-tube adherent to the 1-2-celled ovary, the limb of the calyx inconspicuous. Petals and stamens all epigynous. Style 1 , stigma flat or capitate. Fruit a 1-2-seeded drupe.
1. Cornus. Flowers perfect (the parts in fours), either forming cymes, or in close heads surrounded by a showy involucre resembling a corolla. Leaves mostly opposite.
2. Nyssa. Flowers diceciously polygamous, the parts in fives.
Leaves alternate, mostly crowded at the ends of the branchlets.
*Flowers in a close head, surrounded by a showy involucre of 4 white bracts. Fruit red.
1. C. Canadensis, L. (Bunch-berry.) Stem simple, 5 or 6 inches high. Upper leaves crowded and apparently whorled, ovate, the lower scale-like. Leaves of the involucre ovate. Rich woods.
2. C. flor'ida, L. (Flowering Dogwood.) A small tree, with opposite ovate pointed leaves. Leaves of the involucre notched at the apex, very showy. - Rocky woods. South-west Ontario.
* * Flowers (white) in flat cymes. No involucre. Fruit blue or white.
3. C. circinata, L'Her. (Round-leaved Dogwood.) A shrub 4-6 feet high, with greenish warty dotted branches. Leaves opposite, broadly oval, white-woolly beneath. Fruit light blue. - -Rich woods.
4. C. seric'ea, L. (Silky Cornel.) A large shrub with purplish branches. Leaves opposite, narrowly ovato or oblong, silky beneath. Branchlets often rusty. Fruit; light blue. Distinguished from No. 3 by the colour of the branches and the much smaller leaves. - Low wet grounds.
5. C. stolonif'era, Michx. (Red-osier Dogwood.) A shrub forming clumps by the production of suckers or stolons, 3-6 feet high. Branches bright red-purple, smooth. Leaves opposite, ovate, roughish, whitish beneath. Fruit white or whitish. - Low wet grounds.
6. C. paniculata, L'Her. (Panicled Cornel.) A shrub 4-8 feet high, with erect, gray, and smooth branches. Flowers white, very numerous. Leaves opposite, ovate-lanceolate, taper-pointed. Cymes convex. Fruit white. - Thickets and river-banks.
7. C aspeprifo'lia, Michx., (Rough-leaved Dogwood) is reported by Macoun as common on Point Pelee. Branches brownish, the branchlets rough-pubescent. Leaves oppo. site, rather small, oblong or ovate; rough above, downy beneath. Fruit bluish or white.
8. C. alternifo'lia, L. (Alternate-leaved Cornel.) A large shrub or small tree, with alternate greenish branches streaked with white. Leaves mostly alternate, oval, acute at each end, crowded at the ends of the branches. Flowers yellowish, in loose cymes. Fruit deep blue, on reddish stalks. - Thickets.
L. Pepperidge. Sour-Gum Tree. N. sylvat'ica, Marsh. A middle-sized tree with horizontal branches, reported from Niagara and south-western Ontario. Sterile flowers in dense axillary clusters, with small calyx, and small fleshy petals or none. Stamens mostly 10, but sometimes fewer. Fertile flowers in clusters of 3-8, at the summit of a slender axillary peduncle, larger than the staminate ones. Style revolute. Ovary 1-celled. Drupe ovoid, bluish-black, about half an inch long.