Herbs or shrubs, chiefly distinguished from the preceding Order by the presence of stipules between the opposite entire leaves, or by the leaves being in whorls without stipules. Calyx superior. Stamens alternate with the (mostly 4) lobes of the corolla, and inserted on its tube. Ovary 2-4-celled.
1. Ga'lium. Leaves in whorls. Slender weak herbs with square stems. Calyx-teeth inconspicuous. Corolla 4-parted, wheel-shaped. Styles 2. Fruit twin, separating into two 1-seeded carpels.
2. Sherard'ia. Leaves in whorls. Stems square, slender, procumbent. Corolla funnel-form, 4-5-lobed. Calyx-lobes lanceolate. Flowers blue or pinkish, with a gamophyllous involucre.
3. Cephalan'thus. Leaves opposite. Shrubs with the flowers in a globular peduncled head. Lobes of calyx and corolla each 4. Style very slender, much protruded. Stigma capitate.
4. Mitchel'la. Leaves opposite. Shining trailing evergreen herbs, with flowers in pairs, the ovaries united. Lobes of calyx and corolla each 4, the corolla bearded inside. Style 1. Stigmas 4. Fruit a red 2-eyed berry.
4. Housto'nia. Leaves opposite. Low and slender erect herbs, with the flowers in small terminal clusters. Lobes of calyx and corolla each 4. Style 1. Stigmas 2.
1. G. Apari'ne, L. (Cleavers. Goose-grass.) Leaves about 8 in a whorl, lanceolate, rough-margined. Peduncles 1-2-flowered, axillary. Fruit covered with hooked prickles. Low grounds.
2. G. triflo'rum, Michx. (Sweet-scented Bedstraw.) Leaves chiefly 6 in a whorl, elliptical-lanceolate, bristle-pointed. Peduncles 3-flowered, terminating the branches. Fruit covered with hooked prickles. - Woods.
3. G. pilo'sum, Ait. Leaves in whorls of 4, hairy, oval. Peduncles twice- or thrice-forked. - Southwestern Ontario.
4. G. laneeolatum, Torr. (Wild Liquorice.) Leaves all in whorls of 4 each, lanceolate, tapering at the apex, more or less 3-nerved. Peduncles mostly once-forked. Flowers few or several, remote. Fruit covered with hooked prickles.
5. G. circae'zans, Michx., is similar to No. 4, but the leaves are obtuse instead of tapering. - Woods.
6. G. Kamtschat'icum, Steller, has leaves orbicular to oblong-ovate, and corolla yellowish-white and glabrous. - Mountain woods, Atl. Prov.
7. G. asprel'lum, Michx. (Rough Bedstraw.) Leaves in whorls of 6, or 4 or 5 on the branchlets, elliptical-lanceolate, very rough on the edges and midrib. Stem weak, 3-5 feet high, leaning upon and clinging to bushes by its rough edges. Flowers numerous in panicled clusters. Fruit not rough. Thickets.
8. G. trif'idum, L. (Small Bedstraw.) Leaves in whorls of 4-6. Stem 6-18 inches high, roughened on the edges, as are the leaves usually. Flowers few, not panicled. Farts of the flowers generally in threes. Fruit smooth. Var. latifolium, Torr., is easily known by its broad leaves and widely branching stems. - Low grounds and swamps.
Var. tinctorium, Torr, and Gray. Stem taller and stouter, with nearly smooth angles. Peduncles 3-7-flowered. Corolla-lobes and stamens 4.
9. G. borea'le, L. (Northern Bedstraw.) Leaves in whorls of 4 linear-lanceolate, 3-nerved. Flowers very numerous, crowded in a narrow and compact terminal panicle. Stem erect and rigid, 1-3 feet high. - Rocky thickets and river-banks.
Dill. S. arven'sis, L. Sparingly naturalized.
L, Button Bush. C. occidenta'lis, L. A smooth shrub growing in swamps, with ovate petioled pointed leaves, which are opposite or in whorls of 3. Easily recognized by the globular head of white flowers.
L. Partridge Berry M. repens, L. - Common in dry woods. Leaves round-ovate, shining, sometimes with whitish lines.
1. H. purpu'rea, L. Stems tufted, 3-6 inches high. Leaves varying from roundish ovate to lanceolate, 3-5-ribbed, sessile. - Woodlands.
Var. longifo'lia, Gray, has thinner oblong-lanceolate to linear leaves, and is lower. - Chiefly N.W.
2. H. caeru'lea, L. (Bluets. Innocence.) A slender herb with erect stems. A single flower on each slender peduncle. Leaves oblong-spathulate. Corolla light blue to nearly white, with a yellowish eye and a long tube. - Moist grassy places, Atl. Prov.