Herbs or shrubs, distinguished from Rosaceae chiefly in having opposite as well as alternate leaves, and usually no stipules; stamens only as many or twice as many as the (usually 5) petals; and the carpels fewer than the petals (mostly 2), and usually more or less united with each other. Stamens and petals generally inserted on the calyx.
1. Ri'bes. Shrubs, sometimes prickly, with alternate and palmatelyveined and lobed leaves, which are plaited in the bud. Calyx 5-lobed, the tube adherent to the ovary (superior). Petals 5, small, inserted on the calyx. Stamens 5. Styles 2. Fruit a many-seeded berry.
2. Parnas'sia. Smooth herbs, with entire and chiefly radical leaves, and solitary flowers terminating the long scapes. Petals 5, large, veiny, each with a cluster of sterile filaments at the base. Proper stamens 5. Stigmas 4. Pod 4-valved. Calyx free from the ovary.
3. Saxifraga. Herbs with clustered root-leaves. Flowers in close cymes. Calyx-lobes hardly adherent to the ovary. Petals 5. Stamens 10. Fruit a pair of follicles, slightly united at the base.
4. Mitel'la. Low and slender herbs, with round-heart-shaped radical leaves, those on the scape (if any) opposite. Flowers in terminal racemes. Calyx 5-lobed, adherent to the base of the ovary. Petals 5, slender, pinnatifid. Stamens 10, short. Styles 2. Pod 2-beaked, but 1-celled.
5. Tiarel'la. Slender herbs, with radical heart-shaped leaves, and leafless scapes, bearing a simple raceme of flowers. Calyx bell-shaped, 5-parted. Petals 5, entire. Stamens 10, long and slender. Pod 2-valved, the valves unequal.
6. Heu'chera. Perennial herbs with round-heart-shaped radical leaves; those on the stem (if any) alternate. Greenish or purple flowers, clustered in a long narrow panicle. Petals 5, small, spathulate, entire. Stamens 5. Styles 2. Pod 2-beaked.
7. Chrysosple'uium. Small and smooth herbs, with mostly opposite roundish leaves. Calyx-tube adherent to the ovary. Petals none. Stamens twice as many as the calyx-lobes (8-10), inserted on a conspicuous disk. Pod 2-lobed.
1. R. Cynos'bati, L. (Wild Gooseberry.) Stem with small thorns at the bases of the leaves, the latter downy, on slender petioles, roundish heart-shaped, 3-5-lobed. Peduncles slender, 2-3-flowered. Berry covered with long prickles. - Open woods and clearings.
2. R. oxyaeanthoi'des, L. (R. hirtellum, Michx.) (Small "Wild Gooseberry.) Steins with very short thorns or none. Peduncles very short, 1-2-flowered. Stamens shorter than the broadly oblong calyx-lobes. Berry small, smooth. - Low grounds.
3. R. rotundifo'lium, Michx. Like the last, but the stamens are longer than the narrowly oblong-spathulate calyx-lobes. - Chiefly eastward.
4. R. lacus'tre, Poir. (Swamp Gooseberry.) Shrubby. Young stems prickly, and thorny at the bases of the leaves. Leaves cordate, deeply 3-5-lobed, the lobes deeply cut. Racemes 4-9-flowered, slender, nodding. Fruit bristly. - Swamps and wet woods.
5. R. flor'idum, L. (Wild Black Currant.) Stems and fruit without prickles or thorns. Leaves resinous -dotted, sharply 3-5-lobed, doubly serrate. Racemes many-flowered, drooping. Calyx bell-shaped. Fruit black, smooth. "Woods.
6. R. rubrum, L. (Wild Red Currant.) A low shrub with straggling stems. Leaves obtusely 3-5-lobed. Racemes from lateral buds separate from the leaf-buds, drooping. Calyx flat. Fruit red, smooth. - Bogs and wet woods.
7. R. prostratum, L'Her. (Fetid Currant.) Stems reclined. Leaves deeply cordate, 5-7-lobed, smooth, the lobes ovate, acute, doubly serrate. Racemes erect, slender, the flowers greenish. Fruit pale red, glandular-bristly. - Cold damp woods and rocks.
8. R. Hudsonia'num, Richards. Like the last, but with white flowers crowded in the erect raceme, and darker and smooth fruit. - N. W. Also in central Ontario.
Tourn. Grass of Parnassus. 1. P. Carolinia'na, Michx. Petals sessile, very veiny. Sterile filaments 3 in each set. Leaves ovate or rounded usually only one low down on the stalk. Flower an inch across, the petals much longer than the calyx. - Beaver meadows and wet banks.
2. P. palustris, L. Sterile filaments 9-15 in each set. Scapes 3-10 inches high. Flower nearly an inch across, the petals not much longer than the sepals. Leaves cordate. - Sandy banks.
3. P. parviflo'ra, DC. Petals but little longer than the sepals. Sterile filaments about 7 in each set. Leaves ovate or oblong. - Atl. Prov. and northward.
1. S. Virginien'sis, Michx. (Early Saxifrage.) Stem 4-9 inches high. Scape clammy. Leaves obovate, crenate-ly toothed. Petals white, oblong, twice as long as the sepals. - Rocks and hillsides.
2. S. tricuspidata, Retz. Stems tufted, 4-8 inches high. Leaves alternate, oblong or spathulate, with 3 rigid sharp teeth at the end. Petals yellow. - Chiefly N. and N.W.
3. S. Aizo'on, Jacq. Scape 5-10 inches high. Leaves thick, spathulate, with white finely-toothed margins. Petals cream-colour, obovate, often spotted at the base. - Moist rocks, Atl. sea-coast and northward.
1. M. diphyl'la, L. (Two-leaved Mitre-wort.) Stem hairy. Leaves cordate, 3-5-lobed, those on the scape 2, opposite, nearly sessile. Flowers white, oblong. --Rich woods.
2. M. nuda, L. (Naked-stalked M.) Stem small and delicate. Leaves kidney-shaped, doubly crenate. Scape leafless, few-flowered. Flowers greenish. - Deep woods, on moss-covered logs, etc.
L. False Mitre-wort. T. cordifo'lia, L. Scapes leafless, 5-12 inches high. Leaves heart-shaped, sharply toothed, sparsely hairy above, downy beneath. Petals white, oblong. - Rich woods.
1. H. Americana, L. (Common Alum-root.) Stems 2-3 feet high, glandular and short-hairy. Flowers small, in a loose panicle. Petals not longer than the calyx-lobes. Stamens and style exserted. - S. W. Ontario.
2. H. his'pida, Pursh, has larger flowers in a very narrow panicle, and taller stems, with long spreading hairs. Stamens short, but soon exserted. - N. W. prairies.
Tourn. Golden Saxifrage. C. America'num, Schwein. A low and delicate smooth herb, with spreading and forking stems. Flowers greenish-yellow, inconspicuous, nearly sessile in the forks. - Shady wet places.