Herbs with perfect and symmetrical flowers, the parts of the latter in twos or fours. Calyx-tube adherent to the ovary, and usually prolonged above it. Petals and stamens inserted on the calyx. Style 1. Stigmas 2 or 4 or capitate.
(See Part I., sections 44-47, for description of a typical plant.)
1. Circae'a. Petals 2, obcordate. Stamens 2. Stigma capitate. Fruit bur-like,l-2-seeded, beset with hooked bristles. Delicate low plants with opposite leaves and very small white flowers in racemes.
2. Epilo'bium. Petals 4. Stamens 8. Calyx-tube hardly prolonged beyond the ovary. Fruit a linear pod, many-seeded, the seeds provided with tufts of downy hairs.
3. CEuothe'ra. Petals 4. Stamens 8. Stigma 4-lobed or discoid.
Flowers yellow (white in one species). Calyx-tube much prolonged. Pods cylindrical or club-shaped. Seeds without tufts.
4. Gau'ra. Petals 4, clawed and unequal. Stamens 8. Stigma 4-lobed, with a cup-like border. Calyx-tube much prolonged. Fruit hard and nut-like, ribbed, indehiscent or nearly so, few-seeded. Flowers rose-coloured or white, turning scarlet.
5. Ludwig'ia. Petals 4, or none. Stamens 4. Calyx-tube not prolonged. Stigma capitate.
1. C. Lutetia'na, L. Stem 1-2 feet high. Leaves opposite, ovate, slightly toothed. No bracts under the pedicels. Fruit roundish, bristly-hairy, 2-celled. - Rich woods.
2. C. alpi'na, L. Stem low and delicate (3-8 inches).
Leaves cordate, coarsely toothed. Minute bracts under the pedicels. Fruit club-shaped, soft-hairy, 1-celled. - Deep low woods.
1. E. angustifo'lium, L. (E. spicatum, Lam.) (Great Willow-herb.) Stem 3-6 feet high, simple. Leaves lanceolate, scattered. Flowers purple, very showy, in a terminal raceme or spike. Stamens and style deflexed. Stigma of 4 long lobes. - Newly-cleared land. Var. canescens, Wood, has white flowers and silvery pods.
2. E. hirsutum, L., is found about Niagara Falls. The stem is tall, erect, and densely soft-hairy, with opposite lance-oblong leaves. Flowers smaller than in No. 1, rose-purple, forming a leafy short raceme. Stamens and style erect.
3. E. paniculatum, Nutt. Glabrous, or pubescent above. Stem varying from 1 to 10 feet high, branching above. Leaves narrowly linear, mostly alternate and fascicled. Flowers few, small, terminating the spreading slender and almost leafless branches. Stamens and style erect. Stigma club-shaped. - Colpoy's Bay, Lake Huron; and N.W.
4. E. linea're, Muhl. (E. palustre, L., var. lineare, Gray.) Stem 1-2 feet high, erect, slender, branching above, hoary-pubescent. Leaves linear-lanceolate, nearly entire. Flowers small, corymbed at the ends of the branches, purplish or white. Petals erect. Stigma club-shaped. - Bogs.
5. E. Strictum, Muhl., (E. molle, Torr.) is occasionally met with. It differs from No. 4 chiefly in having the leaves crowded, broader, and their points more obtuse. The petals are rose-coloured. - Bogs.
6. E. palustre, L. Stem low, slender, and simple (about a foot high), finely pubescent. Leaves erect or ascending, sessile, linear to linear-lanceolate, obtuse, with revolute margins. Seeds roughened with points. - Atl. seacoast and N.W
7. E. coloratum, Muhl. Stem 1-2 feet high, nearly smooth, but with 2-4 hairy lines decurrent from the leaves, the latter lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, serrate, with conspicuous petioles. Flowers small, more or less nodding, corymbed. Petals pale, deeply notched. Coma of the seed brownish. - Not so common as the next.
8. E. adenocau'lon, Haussk. More glandular-pubescent than the last. Leaves abruptly contracted into short petioles. Flowers erect. Coma of the seed much lighter in colour. - Common in wet places.
* Stigma-lobes linear.
1. CE. bien'nis, L. (Common Evening Primrose.) Stem 2-4 feet high, hairy. Leaves ovate-lanceolate. Flowers yellow, odorous, in a leafy spike, opening in the evening or in cloudy weather. Pods oblong, narrowing towards the top. - Waste places.
Var. grandiflo'ra, Lindl., has petals as long as the calyx-tube.
Var. muricata, Lindl, has rough-bristly stem and pods, and petals rather longer than the stamens.
2. (E. albieau'lis, Nutt. Flowers white, changing to rose-colour, nodding in the bud. Stem white, and commonly glabrous. - N. W.
3. CE. pu'mila, L. (Small E.) Stem low, 5-12 inches high, smooth or nearly so. Leaves lanceolate or oblanceolate. Pods nearly sessile, club-shaped, 4-angled. Flowers pale yellow, opening in sunshine. - River and lake margins.
4. CE. Chrysan'tha, Michx. Distinguished from the preceding by the orange-yellow flowers, and pedicelled pods, the latter scarcely wing-angled. - Drier ground than the preceding.
* * Stigma discoid.
5. (E. serrulata, Nutt., var. Douglasii, Torr, and Gray. A low and slender plant, with linear to lanceolate leaves. Calyx-tube broadly funnel-form. Petals obovate. - N.W.
L. G. coccin'ea, Nutt. Hoary and very leafy, 6-12 inches high. Flowers small, in simple spikes. - N. W.
1. L. palustris, Ell. (Water Purslane.) Stems creeping in the mud of ditches or river margins, smooth. Leaves opposite, tapering into a slender petiole. Flowers sessile, solitary, usually without'petals. Pod 4-sided.
2. L. alternifo'lia, L. (Seed-box.) Stem branching, about 3 feet high, nearly smooth. Flowers yellow, conspicuous, peduncled in the upper axils. Leaves alternate, pointed at both ends. Capsules wing-angled. - S. W. Ontario.
3. L. polycarp'a, Short and Peter. Stem 1-3 feet high, erect and branching, but producing runners at the base. Flowers small, sessile in the axils, with greenish petals or none. Leaves acute at both ends, those of the runners oblong-spathulate. Bractlets at the base of the capsules linear-awl-shaped. - S..W. Ontario, not common.