1. R. odora'tus, L. (Purple Flowering-Raspberry.) Shrubby 3-5 feet high. Branches, peduncles, and calyx clammy with glandular hairs. Flowers large and handsome, rose-purple. Leaves large, broadly ovate, 3-5-lobed, the lobes acute, minutely toothed. Fruit fiat.
2. R. Nutka'nus, Mocino, is distinguished from No. 1 by its oval white petals, and its 5-lobed coarsely toothed leaves. - N.W.
3. R. Chamaemo'rus, L. (Cloud-berry. Baked-apple Berry.) A low herb with dioecious flowers. Stem simple, without prickles, 2-3-leaved, bearing one large white flower. Leaves simple, kidney-form, 5-lobed, serrate. - Sphagnous swamps, chiefly eastward.
4. R. triflo'rus, Richardson. (Dwarf Raspberry.) Stems ascending or trailing, a foot high, not prickly. Leaflets 3-5, nearly smooth, rhombic-ovate, acute at both ends, doubly serrate. Peduncle usually 3-flowered. Petals white; sepals reflexed. Fruit red. - Cedar-swamps.
5. R. strigo'sus, Michx. (Wild Red Raspberry.) Stems upright, beset with stiff straight bristles. Leaflets 3-5, oblong-ovate, pointed, cut-serrate, whitish beneath. Fruit light red. - Hillsides and thickets.
6. R. oceidenta lis, L. (Black Raspberry.) Stem glaucous, recurved, armed with hooked prickles. Leaflets 3, ovate, pointed, coarsely serrate, white-downy beneath. Fruit purplish-black. - Borders of fields, especially where the ground has been burned over.
7. R. villo'sus, Ait. (High Blackberry.) Stem shrubby, furrowed, erect or reclining, armed with hooked prickles. Leaflets 3-5, unequally serrate, the terminal one conspicuously stalked. Lower surface of the leaflets hairy and glandular. Flowers racemed, numerous, large and white. Fruit oblong, black. Var. frondosus is smoother and less glandular. Var. humifusus is trailing and smaller, and the flowers are less numerous. - Borders of thickets.
8. R. Canadensis, L. (Low Blackberry. Dewberry.) Stem shrubby, extensively trailing, slightly prickly. Leaflets chiefly 3, oval or ovate-lanceolate, nearly smooth, sharply serrate. Flowers in racemes. - Thickets and rocky hills.
9. R. his'pidus, L., (Running Swamp-Blackberry) occurs occasionally in low meadows. Stem prostrate, with small reflexed prickles, sending up at intervals the short flowering shoots. Leaflets mostly 3, smooth and shining. Fruit of few grains, red or purple.
Tourn. Rose. * Styles cohering in a protruding column, as long as the stamens.
1. R. setig'era, Michx. Stem climbing. Prickles nearly straight. Leaflets 3-5, ovate. Petals deep rose-coloured, changing to white. - Borders of thickets and along fences; south-western Ontario.
**Styles separate, included within the calyx-tube; sepals spreading after flowering, and deciduous.
2. R. Caroli'na, L. (Swamp Rose.) Stem 1-7 feet high, erect, armed with stout straight or somewhat curved prickles. Leaflets 5-9, very finely serrate, mostly narrowly oblong. Stipules long and very narrow. Flowers in corymbs, numerous. Calyx and globular calyx-tube beset with glandular bristles. - Wet places, Ontario.
3. R. lu'cida, Ehrhart. Stem 1-6 feet high, armed with stout more or less hooked prickles. Leaflets 5-9, coarsely serrate, smooth and often shining above, rather thick. Peduncles 1-3-flowered. - Dry soil, or borders of swamps, chiefly eastward.
4. R. hu'milis, Marsh. Low, more slender and less leafy than the last, with straight slender spines. Stipules narrow. Leaflets thin and pale. Outer sepals always more or less lobed. - Mostly in sandy soil.
5. R. nit'ida, Willd. Low. Stem and branches usually thickly covered with prickles interspersed with straight slender spines. Stipules mostly dilated. Leaflets bright green and shining, mostly narrowly oblong. Flowers generally solitary. Sepals entire. - Margins of swamps, Atl. Prov.
6. R. rubigino'sa, L. (Sweet - Brier.) Stem tall. Prickles numerous, the larger hooked, the smaller awl-shaped. Leaflets 5-7, doubly serrate, glandular beneath, aromatic. Flowers mostly solitary. Fruit pear-shaped or obovate. - Roadsides and fields.
* * * Styles separate; sepals erect and connivent after flowering, persistent.
+ Fruit globose.
7. R. blanda, Ait. (Early Wild Rose.) Stem 1-3 feet high. Prickles (if any) few and scattered, straight. Leaflets 5-7. mostly oblong-lanceolate, cuneate at the base, not resinous, simply serrate. Sepals hispid, not lobed. Peduncles 1-3-flowered. - Rocks and rocky shores, mostly eastward.
8. R. Say'i, Schwein. Stems 1-2 feet high, very prickly. Leaflets 3-7, broadly elliptical to oblong-lanceolate, resinous, the teeth serrulate. Flowers large, mostly solitary. Outer sepals usually lobed, not hispid. - Our most northern rose.
9. R. Arkansa'na, Porter. Stems low, very prickly. Stipules narrow. Leaflets 7-11, broadly el iptical to oblong-lanceolate, wedge-shaped at the base, simply serrate, not resinous. Outer sepals lobed, rarely hispid. - N.W. prairies.
+ Fruit oblong-ovate to oblong.
10. R. Engelman'ni, Watson. Stems 3-4 feet high, often very prickly. Leaflets 5-7, the teeth serrulate. Flowers solitary. Sepals not lobed. Fruit 1/2-l inch long. - Shores of Lake Superior and westward.
L. Hawthorn. 1. C. eoecin'ea, L. (Scarlet - fruited Thorn.) A low-tree with reddish branches, and stout chestnut-brown spines. Peduncles and calyx glandular. Leaves rather thin, roundish-ovate, on slender petioles; acutely glandular-toothed, sometimes cut-lobed. Fruit bright red, globose or obovate, half an inch broad. - Thickets, common.
Var. maeracantha, Dudley, (C. tomentosa, L. in part) has longer spines and thicker leaves, wedge-shaped at the base, on stout petioles and often deeply cut. The cymes also are broader and the flowers and fruit rather large. - Thickets.
Var. mollis, Torr, and Gray, (C tomentosa, L., var. mollis, Gray) has densely pubescent shoots and large slender-petioled leaves, usually with acute narrow lobes. Fruit bright scarlet with a slight bloom, an inch broad. - Queens-ton and westward along Lake Erie.
2. C. punctata, Jacq. Not glandular. Branches horizontal. Leaves rather small, wedge-obovate, tapering and entire below, unequally toothed above, villous-pubescent when young, not shining. Fruit globose, about an inch broad.
3. C. Crus'galli, L. (Cockspur Thorn.) A shrub or low tree, glabrous. Leaves thick, shining above, wedge-obovate, finely serrate. Petioles very short. Fruit globular, dull red, 1/3 of an inch broad. Thorns very long. - Thickets, south-western Ontario.
4. C Douglasii, Lindl., has few short and stout spines, ovate thin doubly serrate leaves, and small black-purple fruit. - N.W. prairies.
1. P. eoronaria, L. (American Crab-Apple.) A small tree, with ovate serrate simple leaves, tomentose beneath. Flowers in umbel-like cymes. Styles woolly and cohering at the base. Fruit a greenish apple. - Toronto and westward.
2. P. arbutifo'lia, L. (Choke-berry.) A shrub, with oblong or oblanceolate finely serrate simple leaves, tomentose beneath. Flowers in compound cymes. Fruit berry-like, nearly globular, dark red or purple. - Swamps.
Var. melanocar'pa, Hook., is nearly smooth throughout, and has large black fruit. - Swamps.
3. P. Ameriea'na, DC. (American Mountain-Ash.) A small tree with odd-pinnate leaves of 13-15 leaflets, the latter lanceolate, taper-pointed, sharply serrate, bright green. Fruit scarlet, berry-like, not larger than peas. Flowers in flat cymes. - Swamps and cool woods, northward.
4. P. sambucifo'lia, Cham. and Schlecht., differs from the last in having oblong, oval or lance-ovate, obtuse leaflets, smaller cymes, and larger flowers and berries. - N.W.
1. A. Canadensis, Torr, and Gray. (Shadbush. Service-berry.) A tree 10-30 feet high, with a purplish, berry-like edible fruit. Leaves ovate to ovate-oblong, slightly cordate, pointed, very sharply serrate, nearly or soon glabrous. Bracts and stipules silky-ciliate. Flowers large, in drooping nearly glabrous racemes. Petals oblong. Pedicels of the berries long. - Open woodlands.
Var. rotundifolia, Torr, and Gray, has broader leaves.
Var. oblongifolia, Torr, and Gray, is a small tree (6-10 feet), with the young leaves and racemes densely white-tomentose. Leaves broader and generally rounded at the base. Flowers in shorter and denser racemes, and pedicels of the fruit shorter. Petals oblong-spathulate. - Low grounds.
2. A. oligocarp'a, Roem. A shrub 2-4 feet high. Leaves thin, oblong, acute at both ends. Petals oblong-obovate. Fruit dark purple with a dense bloom. - Cold swamps.
3. A. alnifolia, Nutt. A shrub 3-8 feet high. Leaves mostly broadly elliptical and obtuse, coarsely toothed towards the apex. Raceme short and rather dense. Petals wedge-shaped-oblong. - N.W. prairies.