Suborder Pomeae

Carpels enclosed in and adnate to the fleshy calyx-tube, forming a pome in fruit. Styles often united below. Trees or shrubs.

15. Cratae'gus. Calyx-tube urn-shaped, becoming thick and fleshy in fruit, enclosing and combined with the 2-5 carpels. Fruit a pome, but drupe-like, containing 2-5 bony nutlets. Thorny shrubs. Flowers generally white.

16. Pyrus. Fruit a pome or berry-like, the 2-5 carpels or cells of a papery or cartilaginous texture (see Part I., sections 52 and 232), each 2-seeded. Shrubs or trees.

17. Amelan'chier. Pome berry-like, 10-celled, i.e., with twice as many cells as styles. Petals narrow. Otherwise as in Pyrus. Shrubs or small trees, not thorny.

1. Prunes. Tourn. Plum. Cherry

1. P. America'na, Marshall, (Wild Plum.) A thorny tree 8-10 feet high, with orange or red drupes half an inch or more in diameter; and ovate, conspicuously pointed, coarsely or doubly serrate, veiny leaves. Flowers white, appearing before the leaves, in umbel-like lateral clusters. - Woods and river-banks.

2. P. pu'mila, L. (Dwarf Cherry.) A small trailing shrub, 6-18 inches high. Leaves obovate-lanceolate, tapering to the base, toothed near the apex, pale beneath. Flowers in umbels of 2-4, appearing with the leaves. Fruit ovoid, dark red, as large as a good-sized pea. - Crevices of rocks, and sand-beaches and plains.

3. P. Pennsylvan'ica, L. (Wild Red Cherry.) A tree 20-30 feet high, or shrubby. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, sharply serrate, green both sides. Flowers (appearing with the leaves) in large clusters, the pedicels elongated. Fruit globular, as large as a red currant, very sour. - Rocky thickets, and in old windfalls.

4. P. Virginia'na, L. (Choke-Cherry.) A good-sized shrub, 3-10 feet high. Leaves oval, oblong, or obovate, finely and sharply serrate, abruptly pointed. Flowers in short erect racemes, appearing after the leaves. Fruit red, becoming darker, very astringent. - Woods and thickets.

5. P. sero'tina, Ehrhart. (Wild Black Cherry.) A large tree, with reddish-brown branches. Leaves smooth, varying from oval to ovate-lanceolate, taper-pointed, serrate, with short and blunt incurved teeth, shining above. Flowers in long racemes. Fruit purplish-black, edible. - Woods and thickets.

2. Spirae'a. L. Meadow-Sweet

1. S. opulifo'lia, L. (Physocarpus opulifolius, Maxim.) (Nine-bark.) Shrub 3-7 feet high, the old bark separating in thin layers. Leaves broadly ovate or cordate, 3-lobed. doubly crenate, smooth. Flowers white, in umbel-like corymbs terminating the branches. Folicles 2-5, inflated, purplish. - River-banks.

2. S. salieifo'lia, L. (Common Meadow-Sweet.) Shrub 2-3 feet high, nearly smooth. Leaves wedge-lanceolate, doubly serrate. Flowers white or rose-coloured, in a dense terminal panicle. - Low grounds along streams.

3. S. tomento'sa, L. (Downy M.), with deep rose-coloured flowers, and the stems and under surface of the leaves densely woolly, occurs eastward toward the sea-coast, and in the northern counties of Ontario.

3. Gille'nia. Moench. Indian Physic

G. trifoliata, Moench. (Bowman's Root.) Herb with 3-foliolate leaves; the leaflets ovate-oblong, pointed, rather coarsely serrate; stipules small, awl-shaped, entire. Flowers white or rose-coloured, in loose few-flowered corymbs. - Rich woods, chiefly south-westward.

4. Agrimo'nia. Tourn. Agrimony

1. A. Eupatoria, L. (Common Agrimony.) Stem herbaceous, hairy, 2-3 feet high. Leaves interruptedly pinnate, larger leaflets 5-7, oblong-ovate, coarsely serrate. Petals yellow, twice as long as the calyx. - Borders of woods.

2. A. parviflo'ra, Ait. (Small - flowered A.), has crowded lanceolate leaflets, 11-19, with smaller ones intermixed, and small petals. - S. W. Ontario.

5. Alchemil'la

Tourn. Lady's Mantlb. A. vulga'ris, L. Leaves large, several-lobed, serrate. Flowers small, yellowish-green, in corymbose terminal clusters. - Atl. sea-coast.

6. Poterium

L. Burnet. P. Canadense. Stamens 4, long-exserted, white. Stem 3-6 feet high. Leaflets numerous, heart-shaped, ovate or oblong-lanceolate, coarsely serrate. - Bogs and wet meadows, Atl. Prov.

7. Geum, L. Avens

1. G. album, Gmelin. (White Avens.) Stem 2 feet high, slender, branching, smoothish or downy. Root-leaves pinnate, the cauline ones 3-divided, lobed, or only toothed. Petals white, as long as the calyx. Achenes bristly, tipped with the hooked lower joint of the style, the upper joint falling away. Receptacle of the fruit bristly. - Low rich woods and thickets.

2. G. Virginia'num, L. Stem stout, bristly - hairy. Leaves nearly as in No. 1. Petals white, shorter than the calyx. Receptacle of the fruit nearly smooth. - Meadows and thickets; not common.

'3. G. macrophyl'lum,"Willd. Bristly-hairy, stout. Root-leaves interruptedly pinnate, with a very large round-heart-shaped terminal leaflet. Stem-leaves with 2-4 minute lateral leaflets, the terminal 3-cleft, with wedge-form rounded lobes. Petals yellow, longer than the calyx. Receptacle nearly naked. - Atl. Prov. chiefly.

4. G. Strictum, Ait. (Yellow A.) Stem 2-3 feet high, rather hairy. Root-leaves interruptedly pinnate; stem-leaves 3-5-foliolate, leaflets obovate or ovate. Petals yellow, longer than the calyx. Receptacle of the fruit downy. Achenes tipped with the hooked style. - Dry thickets.

5. G. riva'le, L. (Water or Purple Avens.) Petals purplish-yellow; calyx brown-purple. Flowers nodding, but the fruiting heads upright. The upper Joint of the style feathery, persistent. Stem simple, 2 feet high. Root-leaves lyrate; stem-leaves few, 3-foliolate, lobed. - Bogs and wet places.

6. G. triflo'rum, Pursh. Stem about a foot high, soft-hairy. Flowers 3 or more, on long peduncles, purple. Styles not jointed, feathery, at least 2 inches long in the fruit. - Dry hills and thickets. Not common.

8. Waldstei'nia

Willd. Barren Strawberry. W. fragarioi'des, Tratt. A low plant, 4-6 inches high. Leaflets 3, broadly wedge-form, crenately toothed. Scapes several-flowered. Petals yellow, longer than the calyx. - Dry woods and hill-sides'.