1. V. Americana, Schweinitz. (American Brooklime.) Flowers pale blue, in opposite axillary racemes. Leaves mostly petioled, thickish, serrate. Pod swollen. - A common plant in brooks and ditches.
2. V. anagal'lis, L., (Water Speedwell) is much like No. 1, but the leaves are sessile, with a heart-shaped base.
3. V. scutellata, L. (Marsh S.) Flowers pale blue, in racemes, chiefly from-alternate axils. Leaves sessile, linear, opposite, hardly toothed. Racemes 1 or 2, slender and zigzag. Flowers few. Pods very flat, notched at both ends. - Bogs.
Var. pubescens, Macoun, has hairy stem and leaves.
4. V. officinalis, L. (Common S.) Flowers light blue. Stem prostrate, rooting at the base, pubescent. Leaves short-petioled, obovato-elliptical, serrate. Racemes dense, chiefly from alternate axils. Pod obovate - triangular, strongly flattened, notched. - Hillsides and open woods.
5. V. chamae'drys, L. Flowers pale blue. Stem pubescent, at least in 2 lines, from a creeping base. Leaves nearly sessile, ovate or cordate, incisely crenate. Raceme3 axillary, loosely flowered. Pod triangular-obcordate. - Chiefly eastward; also at Niagara Falls.
6. V. serpyllifo'lia, L. (Thyme-leaved S.) Flowers whitish or pale blue, in a loose terminal raceme. Stem nearly smooth, branched at the creeping base. Leaves obscurely crenate, the lowest petioled. Pod flat, notched. - Roadsides and fields. Plant only 2 or 3 inches high.
7. V. peregri'na, L. (Neckweed.) Flowers whitish, solitary in the axils of the upper leaves, short-pedicelled. Corolla shorter than the calyx. Stem 4-9 inches high, nearly smooth. Pod orbicular, slightly notched. - Waste places and cultivated grounds.
8. V. arven'sis, L. (Corn Speedwell.) Flowers (blue) as in No. 7, but the stem is hairy, and the pod inversely heart-shaped. - Cultivated soil.
9. V. agres'tis, L. (Field Speedwell.) Leaves round or ovate, crenate, petioled. Flowers small, in the axils of the ordinary leaves, long-pedicelled. Seeds few, cup-shaped. - Sandy fields, Atl. Prov. (Int. from Eu.)
10. V. Buxbaum'ii, Tenore. Leaves as in the last. Flowers (blue) large, long-pedicelled, in the axils of the ordinary leaves. Calyx-lobes widely spreading in fruit. Pod obcordate-triangular, broadly notched, many-seeded. - Atl. Prov.
1. L. vulga'ris, Mill. (Toad-Flax. Butter-and-Eggs.) Leaves crowded, linear, pale green. Corolla pale yellow, with a deeper yellow or orange-coloured palate. - Roadsides.
2. L. Canadensis, Spreng. (Wild Toad-Flax.) A slender herb, with linear, entire, alternate leaves. Flowers blue, small, in a naked, terminal raceme. Spur of corolla curved, filiform. - Sandy soil, Atl. Prov.
3. L. cymbalaria, Mill. A delicate little trailing plant, with thickish 3-5-lobed leaves on long petioles, and small yellow and purple flowers. - A garden escape.
S. nodo'sa, L.. var. Marilandica, Gr. Stem smooth; 3-4 feet high. Leaves ovate or oblong, the upper lanceolate, serrate. - Damp thickets. (There appear to be two forms, one with broad leaves and greenish-brown flowers, and the other with narrow leaves and greenish-yellow flowers.)
1. C. verna, Nutt. Slender, 6-20 inches high. Lower leaves ovate, upper ovate-lanceolate, clasping. Corolla (blue and white) twice as long as the calyx. Peduncles long. - Western Ontario.
2. C. parviflo'ra, Dougl. Smaller. Corolla (blue) very small, scarcely longer than the calyx. Peduncles short. - Chiefly N.W.
Tourn. Turtle-head. C. glabra, L. Stem smooth, erect and branching. Leaves short-petioled, lance-oblong, serrate, opposite. Bracts of the flowers concave. - Wet places.
1. P. pubes'cens. Stem 1-3 feet high, pubescent; the panicle more or less clammy. Throat of the corolla almost closed. Stem leaves lanceolate, clasping. - Dry soil.
2. P. gra'cilis, Nutt. Stem 1 foot high or less, glabrous or nearly so, viscid-pubescent above. Corolla tubular-funnel-form, the throat open, lilac-purple or whitish. - N.W.
3. P. acumina'tus, Dougl. Stem 6-20 inches high, stout, glabrous and glaucous. Leaves thick, the lower obovate or oblong, the upper lanceolate to broadly ovate or clasping. Panicle narrow, leafy below. - N.W. ,
4. P. crista'tus, Nutt. Pubescent, and viscid-pubescent above. Leaves from linear-lanceolate to oblong. Corolla funnel-form, the lower lip long-villous within. Sterile fila ment copiously yellow-bearded. - N.W.
5. P. confer'tus, Dougl., var. eaeruleo - purpureus, Gray, is at once recognized by the interrupted spike-like panicle, which consists of 2 to 5 dense verticillate clusters. Corolla narrow, the lower lip conspicuously bearded within. - N.W.
1. M. ring'ens, L. Stem square, 1-2 feet high. Corolla blue, an inch long. (A white-flowered variety is sometimes met with.) Leaves oblong or lanceolate, clasping. - Wet places.
2. M. Jamesii, Torr. Stem creeping at the base. Corolla yellow, small. Leaves roundish or kidney-shaped, nearly sessile. Calyx inflated in fruit. - In cool springs.
1. G. Virginia'na, L. Stem 4-6 inches high, clammy with minute pubescence above. Sterile filaments minute or none. Leaves lanceolate. Peduncles slender. - Moist places.
2. G. au'rea, Muhl. Nearly glabrous. Sterile filaments slender, tipped with a little head. Corolla golden yellow.
Raf. False Pimpernel. I. gratioloi'des, Benth. Stem 4-8 inches high, much branched, diffusely spreading. Leaves ovate, rounded or oblong, the upper partly clasping. - "Wet places.
1. G. purpu'rea, L. (Purple Gerardia.) Corolla rose-purple. Leaves linear, acute, roughs-margined. Flowers an inch long, on short peduncles. - Low grounds.
Var. pauper'cula, Gray, is smoother, with smaller and lighter-coloured corolla.
2. G. tenuifo'lia, Vahl. (Slender G.) Corolla rose-purple. Leaves linear, acute. Flowers about 1/2 an inch long, on long thread-like peduncles. - Dry woods.
3. G. fla'va, L. (Downy G.) Corolla yellow, woolly inside. Stem 3-4 feet high, finely pubescent. Leaves oblong or lance-shaped, the upper entire, the lower usually mor9 or less pinnatifid, downy-pubescent. - Woods.
4. G. quercifo'lia, Pursh. (Smooth G.) Corolla yellow, woolly inside. Stem 3-6 feet high, smooth and glaucous. Lover leaves twice-pinnatifid, the upper pinnatifid or entire, smooth. - Woods.
5. G. pedicularia, L. (Cut-leaved G.) Nearly smooth. Flowers nearly as in Nos. 3 and 4. Stem 2-3 feet high, very leafy, much branched. Leaves pinnatifid, the lobes cut and toothed. - Thickets.
1. C. coccin'ea, Spreng. (Scarlet Painted-Cup.) Calyx 2-cleft, yellowish. Stem pubescent or hairy, 1-2 feet high. The stem-leaves nearest the flowers 3-cleft, the lobes toothed, bright scarlet. (A. yellow-bracted form occurs or the shore of Lake Huron.)- -Sandy soil.
2. C. pallida, Kunth., var. septentrionalis, Gray. Calyx equally cleft, divisions 2-cleft. Upper lip of corolla decidedly shorter than the tube. Lower leaves linear; upper broader, mostly entire; the floral oblong or obovate, greenish-white, varying to yellowish, purple or red. - Atl. Prov. and north ward.
3. C. sessiliflo'ra, Pursh. Calyx more deeply cleft in front, the narrow lobes deeply 2-cleft. Leaves mostly 3-5 cleft, the floral ones similar, and not coloured. - N.W.
4. C. miniata,- Dougl. Calyx about equally cleft before and behind, the lobes 2-cleft. Corolla over an inch long, the upper lip linear, longer than the tube. Leaves lanceolate or linear, entire, the floral ones usually bright red. - N.W.
Nutt. 0. lu'teus, Nutt. Stem about 1 foot high, pubescent sometimes viscid. Leaves linear to lanceolate, sometime.". 3-cleft. Bracts not coloured. - N.W.
Tourn. Eyebright. E. officinalis, L., is rather common on the Lower St. Lawrence and the sea-coast. Flowers white, with purple veins. Lowest leaves crenate, those next the flowers bristly-toothed.
Var. Tartar'ica, Benth., has pale purple flowers. 15. Bart'sia, L.
B. Odontites, Huds. Stem branching, scabrous-pubescent. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, coarsely and remotely serrate. - Atl. sea-coast.
R. Crista-galli, L. (Common Yellow-Rattle.) Localities much the same as those of Euphrasia. Seeds broadly winged, rattling in the inflated calyx when ripe.
1. P. Canadensis, L. (Common Lousewort. Wood Bet-ony.) Stems clustered, simple, hairy. Lowest leaves pin-nately-parted. Flowers in a short spike. - Copses and banks.
2. P. lanceolata, Michx., has a nearly simple, smooth, upright stem, and oblong-lanceolate cut-toothed leaves. Calyx 2-lobed, leafy-crested. Pod ovate. - Grassy swamps.
3. P. Furbishiae, Watson. Leaves pinnately-parted, and the short oblong divisions pinnately cut, or (in the upper) serrate. Calyx-lobes 5. Upper lip of corolla straight and beakless. - River banks, Atl. Prov.
Tourn. Cow-Wheat. M. America'num, Michx. Leaves lanceolate, short-petioled; the lower ones entire. - Open woods.