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The Commonly Occurring Wild Plants Of Canada | by Henry Byron Spotton



A flora for the use of beginners

TitleThe Commonly Occurring Wild Plants Of Canada
AuthorHenry Byron Spotton
PublisherW. J. Gage & Company
Year1897
Copyright1897, W. J. Gage & Company
AmazonThe Commonly Occurring Wild Plants Of Canada

By H. B. Spotton, M.A., F.L.S. Prin. Harbord Street Collegiate Institute, Toronto.

Revised Edition.

-Preface To The First Edition
A few words will not be out of place by way of preface to the List of Common Canadian Plants contained in the following pages. It will be observed that the List is confined to wild plants, the exclusi...
-Preface To The Third Edition
The greatly increased interest in Botany as a subject of study in the schools of the Dominion has necessitated a revision and enlargement of the List of Common Canadian Wild Plants. The following page...
-How To Use The Key And The Flora
Assuming that the student has carefully read the Introductory part of this work, and is familar with the ordinary botanical terms, and the chief variations in plant structure as there set forth, it sh...
-Key To The Families Or Orders Included In This Work. Series I. Phanerogams. Plants Producing True Flowers And Seeds. Class I. Dicotyledons
Distinguished ordinarily by having net-veined leaves, and the parts of the flowers in fours or fives, very rarely in sixes. Wood growing in rings, and surrounded by a true bark. Cotyledons of the embr...
-Series I. Phanerogams. Plants Producing True Flowers And Seeds. Class I. Dicotyledons. Part 2
{b) Stamens epigynous (on the ovary, or on a dish which covers the ovary). Euonymus, in Celastraceae. - Shrub, with 4-sided branchlets, not climbing. Leaves simple. Pods crimson when ripe. Calyx not ...
-Class I. Dicotyledons. Part 3
Filaments distinct............................ 179 Asclepiadaceae. - Plants with milky juice. Anthers adhering to the stigmas. Filaments monadelphous. Flowers in umbels............................ 17...
-Class I. Dicotyledons. Part 4
No chatf-like bracts. Stigmas 2................ 184 Oleaceae.- Trees. Leaves pinnately compound. Fruit a 1seeded samara............................... 181 Urticaceae. - Trees. Leaves simple. Fruit a...
-Series I. Flowering Or Phanerogamous Plants
Plants producing flowers (that is to say, stamens and pistils, and usually floral envelopes of some kind), and seeds containing an embryo. Embryo having at least two cotyledons. Parts of the flower u...
-I. Polypetalous Division
Plants with flowers having both calyx and corolla, the latter consisting of petals entirely separate from each other. (In some genera and species, however, petals are absent.) Order I. Ranunculaceae....
-I. Polypetalous Division. Continued
3. Hepatic 1, Dill. Liver-Leaf. Hepatica 1. H. aeutil'oba, DC. (Sharp-lobed H.) Leaves with 3 (sometimes 5) acute lobes, appearing after the flowers. Petioles silky-hairy. - Woods in spring. 2. H. t...
-Order II. Magnoliaceae
Magnolia Family.) Trees or shrubs, with alternate entire or lobed (not serrate) leaves. Sepals 3, coloured, deciduous. Petals 6-9, deciduous. Stamens .hypogynous, indefinite, separate; anthers adnate....
-Order III. Anonaceae. (Custard-Apple Family.)
Trees or shrubs, with alternate and entire leaves, and solitary, axillary, perfect, hypogynous flowers. Sepals 3. Petals 6, in two sets, deciduous. Stamens numerous. Carpels few or many, fleshy in fru...
-Order IV. Menispermaceae. (Moonseed Family.)
Woody twiners, with peltate alternate leaves and small dioecious flowers. Sepals and petals yellowish-white, usually six of each, the petals in front of the sepals. Stamens numerous. Fruit a drupe, i...
-Order V. Berberidaceae
(Barberry Family.) Herbs (or shrubs), with alternate petiolate leaves. Sepals and petals in fours, sixes, or eights (except in the genus Podophyllum), with the petals in front of the sepals. Stamens (...
-Order VI. Nymphaeaceae. (Water-Lily Family.)
Aquatic herbs with cordate or peltate, usually floating, leaves. Floating flowers on long immersed peduncles. Petals and stamens generally numerous. Synopsis Of The Genera 1. Brase'nia. Sepals and p...
-Order VII. Sarraceniaceae. (Pitcher-Plant F.)
Bog-plants, easily distinguished by their pitcher-shaped leaves, all radical. 1. sarrace'nia, Tourn. Side-Saddle Flower. S. purpu'rea, L. (Purple S. Huntsman's Cup.) Leaves hollow, with a wing on one...
-Order VIII. Papaveraceae. (Poppy Family.)
Herbs, with milky or coloured juice and alternate leaves without stipules. Flowers polyandrous, hypogynous. Sepals 2, caducous. Petals 4-12. Stamens numerous, anthers in-trorse. Fruit a 1-celled pod (...
-Order IX. Fumariaceae. (Fumitory Family.)
Smooth herbs, with brittle stems, watery juice, dissected leaves, and irregular flowers. Sepals 2, very small. Corolla flattened and closed, of 4 petals, the two inner united by their tips over the an...
-Order X. Cruciferae. (Cress Family.)
Herbs with a pungent watery juice, alternate leaves without stipules, and regular hypogynous flowers in racemes or corymbs. Pedicels without bractlets. Sepals 4, deciduous. Petals 4, forming a cross-s...
-Cruciferae. (Cress Family.). Continued
2. Barbare'a R. Br. Winter Cress. B. vulga'ris, R. Br. (Yellow Rocket.) Stem smooth, 1-3 feet high. Lower leaves lyrate, the terminal division round and generally large, and 1-5 pairs of lateral ones...
-Order XI. Capparidaceae. Caper Family
Herbs (in Canada), with an acrid watery juice, and alternate palmately compound leaves. Flowers cruciform. Stamens 8 or more. Pod like that of a crucifer, but only 1-celled. Synopsis Of The Genera 1...
-Order XII. Violaceae. (Violet Family.)
Herbs, with alternate stipulate leaves. Flowers irregular, the lower of the 5 petals being spurred. Sepals 5, persistent. Stamens 5, the anthers more or less coherent, and surrounding the pistil. Frui...
-Order XIII. Cistaceae. (Rock-Rose Family.)
Herbs or low shrubs, with simple entire leaves and regular polyandrous flowers. Calyx persistent, usually of 3 large and 2 smaller sepals. Petals 5 or 3, convolute in the bud. Stamens 3-20. Pod 1-cell...
-Order XIV. Droseraceae. (Sundew Family.)
Low glandular-hairy marsh herbs, with circinate tufted radical leaves, and regular hypogynous flowers borne on a naked scape. Sepals, petals, and stamens, 5 each; anthers turned outwards. Styles 3-5, ...
-Order XV. Hypericaceae. (St. John's-Wort F.)
Herbs or shrubs, with opposite entire dotted leaves, and no stipules. Flowers regular, hypogynous, mostly yellow. Sepals 5, persistent. Petals 5, deciduous. Stamens mostly numerous, and usually in 3 o...
-Order XVI. Caryophyllaceae. (Pink Family.)
Herbs with opposite (occasionally whorled) and entire leaves, the stems swollen at the joints. Flowers regular, with the parts mostly in fives, occasionally in fours. Stamens not more than twice as ma...
-Order XVII. Portulacaceae. (Purslane P.)
Herbs with fleshy entire exstipulate leaves, and regular hypogynous or perigynous flowers. Sepals 2. Petals 5. Stamens 5-20. Styles 3-8, united below. Pod 1-celled, few or many-seeded. Synopsis Of Th...
-Order XVIII. Malvaceae. (Mallow Family.)
Herbs, with palmately-veined alternate stipulate leaves. Flowers regular. Calyx valvate. Corolla convolute in the bud. Sepals 5, united at the base, Petals 5, hypogynous. Stamens numerous, monadelphou...
-Order XIX. Tiliaceae. (Linden Family.)
Trees with fibrous bark, soft and white wood, and heart-shaped and serrate leaves, with deciduous stipules. Flowers in small cymes hanging on an axillary peduncle, to which is attached a leaf-like bra...
-Order XX. Linaceae. (Flax Family.)
Herbs with entire exstipulate leaves (but sometimes with glands in place of stipules), and regular hypogynous flowers. Sepals, petals, stamens, and styles, 5 each. Filaments united at the base. Pod 10...
-Order XXI. Geraniaceae. (Geranium Family.)
Herbs (often strong-scented) with symmetrical flowers, having the parts in fives or threes, the filaments usually united at the base, and glands on the receptacle alternate with the petals. Stigmas 5 ...
-Order XXII. Oxalidaceae. (Wood-Sorrel F.)
Low herbs with an acid juice and alternate compound leaves, the 3 leaflets obcordate and drooping in the evening. Flowers very much the same in structure as in the preceding Order, but the fruit is a ...
-Order XXIII. Balsaminaceae. (Balsam Family.)
Smooth herbs, with succulent stems and simple exstipu-late leaves. Flowers irregular, the sepals and petals coloured alike, one of the coloured sepals spurred, the spur with a tail. Stamens 5, coheren...
-Order XXIV. Rutaceae. (Rue Family.)
Shrubs, with compound transparently-dotted leaves, and an acrid taste. Flowers (with us) dioecious or polygamous, appearing before the leaves. Stamens hypogynous, as many as the petals. Synopsis Of T...
-Order XXV. Anacardiaceae. (Cashew Family.)
Trees or shrubs, with a milky or resinous juice, and alternate leaves without dots or stipules. Sepals, petals and stamens, each 5. Fruit a 1-seeded drupelet. The petals and stamens inserted under the...
-Order XXVI. Vitaceae. (Vine Family.)
Shrubs climbing by tendrils, with small greenish flowers in panicled clusters opposite the leaves. Stamens as many as the petals and opposite them. Calyx minute. Petals 4 or 5, hypogynous or perigynou...
-Order XXVII. Rhamnaceae. (Buckthorn Family.)
Shrubs with simple stipulate leaves, and small regular perigynous greenish or whitish flowers. Stamens opposite the petals, and with them inserted on the margin of a fleshy disk which lines the calyx-...
-Order XXVIII. Celastraceae. (Staff-Tree F.)
Shrubs with simple stipulate leaves, alternate or opposite, and small regular flowers, the sepals and petals both imbricated in the bud. Stamens 4-5, alternate with the petals, and inserted on a disk ...
-Order XXIX. Sapindaceae. (Soapberry Family.)
Trees or shrubs, with compound or lobed leaves, and usually unsymmetrical and often irregular flowers. Sepals and petals 4-5, both imbricated in the bud. Stamens 5-10, inserted on a fleshy disk which ...
-Order XXX. Polygalaceae. (Milkwort Family.)
Herbs with entire exstipulate leaves, and irregular hypo-gynous flowers. Stamens 6 or 8, monadelphous or diadelph-ous, the anthers 1-celled, and opening at the top by a pore. Pod 2-celled and 2-seeded...
-Order XXXI. Leguminosae. (Pulse Family.)
Herbs, shrubs, or trees, mostly with compound alternate stipulate leaves, and papilionaceous corollas. (For description of a typical flower, see Part I., cap. v.) Stamens usually 10 (rarely 5), monade...
-Leguminosae. (Pulse Family.). Part 2
2. Trifo'lium. L. Clover. Trefoil 1. T. arvense, L. (Rabbit-foot or Stone Clover.) Stem erect, 4-12 inches high, branching. Heads of whitish flowers oblong, very silky and soft. Calyx-teeth fringed w...
-Leguminosae. (Pulse Family.). Part 3
* Leaves simply pinnate. 1. 0. campes'tris, DC, var. caeru'lea, Koch. Flowers white or yellowish, often tinged with purple or violet, in short spikes on naked scapes. Pods ovate or oblong, of a thin ...
-Leguminosae. (Pulse Family.). Part 4
16. A'Pios Boerhaave. Ground-Nut. Wild Bean. A. tubero'sa, Moench. Flowers brown-purple. - A common twining plant in low grounds. 17. Strophosty'les Ell. S. anglllo'sa, Ell. (Phase'olus diversifoli...
-Order XXXII. Rosaceae. (Rose Family.)
Herbs, shrubs, or trees, with alternate stipulate leaves, and regular flowers. The petals (mostly 5) and stamens (mostly more than 10) inserted on the edge of a disk which lines the calyx-tube. (See P...
-Rosaceae. (Rose Family.). Continued
Suborder Pomeae Carpels enclosed in and adnate to the fleshy calyx-tube, forming a pome in fruit. Styles often united below. Trees or shrubs. 15. Cratae'gus. Calyx-tube urn-shaped, becoming thick an...
-Rosaceae. (Rose Family.). Continued. Part 2
9. Potentilla. L. Clnque-Foil. Flvf-Finger *Styles thickened and glandular towards the base. Inflorescence cymose. + Style arising from near the base of the carpel. 1. P. arguta, Pursh. Stem stout,...
-Rosaceae. (Rose Family.). Continued. Part 3
13. Rubus. Tourn. Bramble 1. R. odora'tus, L. (Purple Flowering-Raspberry.) Shrubby 3-5 feet high. Branches, peduncles, and calyx clammy with glandular hairs. Flowers large and handsome, rose-purple....
-Order XXXIII. Saxifragaceae. (Saxifrage F.)
Herbs or shrubs, distinguished from Rosaceae chiefly in having opposite as well as alternate leaves, and usually no stipules; stamens only as many or twice as many as the (usually 5) petals; and the c...
-Order XXXIV. Crassulaceae. (Orpine Family.)
Succulent herbs (except in one genus), chiefly differing from Saxifragaceae in having symmetrical flowers, the sepals, petals and carpels being the same in number, and the stamens either as many or tw...
-Order XXXV. Hamamelaceae. (Witch-Hazel F.)
Tall shrubs, with alternate simple leaves, and deciduous stipules. Flowers in clusters or heads, often monoecious. Calyx 4-parted, adherent to the base of the ovary, the latter of 2 united carpels. Fr...
-Order XXXVI. Halorageae. (Water-Milfoil F.)
Aquatic or marsh plants, with small inconspicuous flowers, sessile in the axils of the leaves or bracts. Calyx-tube adherent to the ovary (but calyx and corolla wanting in Calli-triche), the latter 2-...
-Order XXXVII. Onagraceae. (Evening-Primrose F.)
Herbs with perfect and symmetrical flowers, the parts of the latter in twos or fours. Calyx-tube adherent to the ovary, and usually prolonged above it. Petals and stamens inserted on the calyx. Style ...
-Order XXXVIII. Melastomaceae. (Melastoma F.)
Low herbs with opposite 3-5-ribbed leaves. Calyx-tube adherent to the ovary, the limb 4 cleft. Petals 4, showy, convolute in the bud. Stamens 8, with 1-celled anthers opening by a pore at the apex; th...
-Order XXXIX. Lythraceae. (Loosestrife F.)
Herbs, or slightly woody plants, with opposite or whorled entire leaves, without stipules. Calyx enclosing, but free from, the ovary. Petals and stamens inserted on the calyx, Flowers axillary or whor...
-Order XL. Cucurbitaceae. (Gourd Family.)
Herbs, climbing by tendrils. Flowers monoecious. Calyx-tube adherent to the 1-3-celled ovary. Corolla commonly more or less gamopetalous. Stamens usually 3, united by their tortuous anthers, and often...
-Order XLI. Cactaceae. (Cactus Family.)
Very fleshy and commonly leafless plants; the stems globose or columnar and angled, or of flattened joints, mostly prickly. Flowers solitary, sessile. The numerous sepals and petals adherent to the 1-...
-Order XLII. Ficoideae. (Ice-Plant Family.)
A miscellaneous group, embracing plants formerly included in Caryophyllaceae and Portulacaceae; differing, however, from true representatives of these in having partitions in the ovary. Petals wanting...
-Order XLIII. Umbelliferae. (Parsley Family.)
Herbs with small flowers mostly in compound umbels. Calyx-tube grown fast to the surface of the ovary; calyx-teeth minute or none. The 5 petals and 5 stamens inserted on a disk which crowns the ovary....
-Order XLIV. Araliaceae. (Ginseng Family.)
Herbs (with us) differing from the last Order chiefly in having, as a rule, more than 2 styles, and the fruit a drupe. The umbels, also, are either single, or corymbed, or panicled. Flowers often poly...
-Order XLV. Cornaceae. (Dogwood Family.)
Shrubs or trees (rarely herbs) with simple leaves. Calyx-tube adherent to the 1-2-celled ovary, the limb of the calyx inconspicuous. Petals and stamens all epigynous. Style 1 , stigma flat or capitate...
-II. Gamopetalous Division
Embracing plants with both calyx and corolla, the latter with the petals united (in however slight a degree.) Order XLVI. Caprifoliaceae. (Honeysuckle F.) Shrubs, rarely herbs, with the calyx-tube a...
-Order XLVII. Rubiaceae. (Madder Family.)
Herbs or shrubs, chiefly distinguished from the preceding Order by the presence of stipules between the opposite entire leaves, or by the leaves being in whorls without stipules. Calyx superior. Stame...
-Order XLVIII. Valerianaceae. (Valerian F.)
Herbs with opposite exstipulate leaves, and small cymose flowers. Calyx-tube adherent to the ovary, the latter 3-celled, but only one of these fertile. Stamens 1-3, fewer than the lobes of the corolla...
-Order XLIX. Dipsaceae. (Teasel Family.)
Herbs with the flowers in heads, surrounded by a many-leaved involucre, as in the next Family, but the stamens are distinct. Leaves opposite. Represented in Canada by the genus Tourn. Teasel. D. sylve...
-Order L. Compositae. (Composite Family.)
Flowers in a dense head on a common receptacle, and sur-Vounded by an involucre. Calyx-tube adherent to the ovary, its limb either obsolete or forming a pappus of few or many bristles or chaffy scales...
-Compositae. (Composite Family.). Part 2
18. Iva. Marginal pistillate florets 1-5, with very small tubular corolla or none. Staminate florets with funnel-form 5-toothed corolla. Anthers nearly separate. Achenes very short. Coarse plants with...
-Compositae. (Composite Family.). Part 3
Suborder II. Liguliflorae Corolla strap-shaped in all the florets of the head. All the florets perfect. Herbs with milky juice, and alternate leaves. 46. Krig'ia. Flowers yellow. Pappus double, the ...
-Compositae. (Composite Family.). Part 4
7. Ambrosia. Tourn. Ragweed 1. A. artemisiaefo'lia, L. (Hog-weed.) Stem erect, 1-3 feet high, branching, hairy. Leaves twice-pinnatifid, the lobes linear, paler beneath. - Waste places everywhere, bu...
-Compositae. (Composite Family.). Part 5
15. Verno'nia. Schreb. Iron-weed V. altiss'ima, Nutt. Tall. Leaves lanceolate to lance-oblong. Heads in an open cyme, the involucre purplish. - Fields and roadsides, S. W. Ontario. 16. Eupatorium. T...
-Compositae. (Composite Family.). Part 6
23. Solidago L. Golden-Rod. * Heads clustered in the axils of the feather-veined leaves. 1. S. squarro'sa, Muhl. Stem stout, 2-5 feet high, simple, hairy above. Scales of the involucre with reflexed...
-Compositae. (Composite Family.). Part 7
27. Aster L. Starwort. Aster. * Leaves, at least the lower ones, heart-shaped and petioled. 1. A. corymbo'sus, Ait. Rays 6-9, white or nearly so. Heads in corymbs. Stems slender, 1-2 feet high, zi...
-Compositae. (Composite Family.). Part 8
28. Erig'eron. L. Fleabane 1. E. Canaden'sis, L. (Horse-weed. Butter-weed.) Kays white, but very inconspicuous, shorter than their tubes. Heads very small, numerous, in panicled racemes. Stem 1-5 fee...
-Compositae. (Composite Family.). Part 9
36. Rudbeck'ia. L. Cone-flowee 1. R. laciniata, L. Rays linear, 1-2 inches long, drooping. Disk greenish-yellow. Stem tall, smooth, branching. Lowest leaves pinnate, of 5-7 lobed leaflets; upper ones...
-Compositae. (Composite Family.). Part 10
44. Polym'nia. L. Leaf-Cup P. Canadensis, L. A coarse clammy-hairy herb. Lower leaves opposite, petioled, pinnatifid; the upper alternate, angled or lobed. Heads small; rays pale yellow. - Shaded rav...
-Order LI. Lobeliaceae. (Lobelia Family.)
Herbs with milky acrid juice, alternate leaves, and loosely racemed flowers. Corolla irregular, 5-lobed, the tube split down one side. Stamens 5, syngenesious, and commonly also monadelphous, free fro...
-Order LII. Campanulaceae. (Campanula F.)
Herbs with milky juice, differing from, the preceding Order chiefly in having a regular 5-lobed corolla (bell-shaped or wheel-shaped), separate stamens (5), and 2 or more (with us, 3) stigmas. Synops...
-Order LIII. Ericaceae. (Heath Family.)
Chiefly shrubs, distinguished by the anthers opening, as a rule, by a pore at the top of each cell. Stamens (as in the two preceding Orders) free from the corolla, as many or twice as many as its lobe...
-Ericaceae. (Heath Family.). Continued
Suborder III. Pyroleae. (Pyrola Family.) Calyx free from the ovary. Corolla polypetalous. More or less herbaceous evergreens. 13. Py'rola. Calyx 2-parted. Petals 5, concave. Stamens 10. Stigma 5-lob...
-Order LIV. Plumbaginaceae. (Leadwort F.)
Maritime herbs with regular pentamerous flowers, a plaited calyx, 5 stamens opposite the lobes (or separate petals) of the corolla, and a 1-celled and 1-seeded ovary. Stat'ice Tourn. S. Limo'nium, L...
-Order LV. Aquifoliaceae. (Holly Family.)
Shrubs or small trees, with small axillary polygamous or dioecious flowers, the parts mostly in fours or sixes. Calyx very minute, free from the ovary. Stamens alternate with the petals, attached to t...
-Order LVI. Primulaceae. (Primrose Family.)
Herbs with regular perfect flowers, well marked by having a stamen before each petal or lobe of the corolla and inserted on the tube. Ovary 1-celled, the placenta rising from the base. Style 1; stigma...
-Order LVII. Plantaginaceae. (Plantain Family.)
Herbs, with the leaves all radical, and the flowers in a close spike at the summit of a naked scape. Calyx of 4 sepals, persistent. Corolla 4-lobed, thin and membranaceous, spreading. Stamens 4, usual...
-Order LVIII. Lentibulariaceae. (Bladderwort F.)
Small aquatic or marsh herbs, with a 2-lipped calyx and a personate corolla with a spur or sac underneath. Stamens 2. Ovary as in Primulaceae. Chiefly represented by the two following genera:1. Utricu...
-Order LIX. Orobanchaceae. (Broomrape F.)
Parasitic herbs, destitute of green foliage. Corolla more or less 2-lipped. Stamens didynamous. Ovary 1-celled with 2 or 4 parietal placentae, many-seeded. I. Epiphe'gus Nutt. (Beech-drops.) E. Virg...
-Order LX. Scrophulariaceae. (Figwort F.)
Herbs distinguished by a 2-lipped or more or less irregular corolla, stamens usually 4 and didynamous, or only 2, (or in Verbascum 5) and a 2-celled and usually many-seeded ovary. Style 1; stigma enti...
-Scrophulariaceae. (Figwort F.). Continued
2. Veron'ica. L. Speedwell 1. V. Americana, Schweinitz. (American Brooklime.) Flowers pale blue, in opposite axillary racemes. Leaves mostly petioled, thickish, serrate. Pod swollen. - A common plant...
-Order LXI. Verbenaceae. (Vervain Family.)
Herbs (with us), with opposite leaves, didynamous stamens, and corolla either irregularly 5-lobed or 2-lipped. Ovary in Verbena 4-celled (when ripe splitting into 4 nutlets) and in Phryma 1-celled, bu...
-Order LXII. Acanthaceae. (Acanthus Family.)
Herbs (with us), with opposite leaves, diandrous (or didy-namous) stamens inserted on the tube of the 2-lipped corolla, and a 2-celled and several-seeded capsule. Seeds flat, supported by hooked proje...
-Order LXIII. Labiatae. (Mint Family.)
Herbs with square stems, opposite leaves (mostly aromatic), didynamous (or in one or two genera diandrous) stamens, a 2-lipped or irregularly 4-or 5-lobed corolla, and a deeply 4-lobed ovary, forming ...
-Labiatae. (Mint Family.). Continued
1. Teu'crium. L. Germander 1. T. Canadense, L. (American Germander. Wood Sage.) Stem 1-3 feet high, downy. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, serrate, short-petioled, hoary beneath. Flowers in a long spike. - ...
-Order LXIV. Borraginaceae. (Borage Family.)
Herbs, with a deeply 4-lobed ovary, forming 4 seed-like nutlets, as in the last Order, but the corolla is regularly 5-lobed, with 5 stamens inserted upon its tube. Synopsis Of The Genera * Corolla w...
-Order LXV. Hydrophyllaceae. (Waterleaf F.)
Herbs, with alternate cut-toothed or lobed leaves, and regular pentamerous and pentandrous flowers very much like those of the last Order, but having a 1-celled ovary with the seeds on the walls {pari...
-Order LXVII. Polemoniaceae. (Polemonium F.)
Herbs with regular pentamerous and pentandrous flowers, but a 3-celled ovary and 3-lobed style. Lobes of the corolla convolute in the bud. Calyx persistent. Synopsis Of The Genera 1. Phlox. Corolla ...
-Order LXVIII. Convolvulaceae. (Convolvulus F.)
Chiefly twining or trailing herbs, with alternate leaves and regular flowers. Sepals 5, imbricated. Corolla 5-plaited or 5-lobed and convolute in the bud. Stamens 5. Ovary 2-celled. Synopsis Of The G...
-Order LXVIII. Solanaceae. (Nightshade Family.)
Bank-scented herbs (or one species shrubby), with colourless bitter juice, alternate leaves, and regular pentamerous and pentandrous flowers, but a 2-celled (in Nicandra 3-5-celled) ovary, with the pl...
-Order LXIX. Gentianaceae. (Gentian Family.)
Smooth herbs, distinguished by having a 1-celled ovary with seeds on the walls, either in lines or on the whole inner surface. Leaves mostly opposite, simple, and sessile, but in one Genus alternate a...
-Order LXX. Apocynaceae. (Dogbane Family.)
Herbs or slightly shrubby plants, with milky juice, opposite simple entire leaves, and regular pentamerous and pentandrous flowers with the lobes of the corolla convolute in the bud. Distinguished by ...
-Order LXXI. Asclepiadaceae. (Milkweed F.)
Herbs with milky juice and opposite or whorled (rarely scattered) simple entire leaves. Pods, seeds, and anthers as in the last Order, but the anthers are more closely connected with the stigma, the (...
-Order LXXII. Oleaceae. (Olive Family.)
The only common representative Genus of this Order in Canada is Fraxinus (Ash). The species of this Genus are trees with pinnate leaves, and polygamous or dioecious flowers without petals, and mostly ...
-III. Apetalous Division
Flowers destitute of corolla, and sometimes also of calyx. Order LXXIII. Aristolochiaceae. (Birthwort F.) Herbs with perfect flowers, the tube of the 3-lobed calyx adherent to the 6-celled many-seed...
-Order LXXIV. Piperaceae. (Pepper Family.)
A small family having, with us, but a single representative:Sauru'rus L. Lizard's Tail. S. cer'nuus, L. A swamp herb, with jointed branching stem, 2 feet high. Leaves petioled, heart-shaped, with con...
-Order LXXV. Phytolaccaceae. (Pokeweed F.)
Herbs with alternate leaves and perfect flowers, resembling in most respects the plants of the next Order, but the ovary is composed of several carpels in a ring, forming a berry in fruit. Only one Ge...
-Order LXXV. Illecebraceae. (Knotwort Family.)
Small diffuse or tufted herbs, with mostly opposite and entire leaves, scarious stipules, and a 4-5-toothed or parted coriaceous persiatent calyx. Petals wanting. Stamens perigynous, as many as the lo...
-Order LXXVI. Chenopodiaceae. (Goosefoot F.)
Homely herbs, with more or less succulent leaves (chiefly alternate), and small greenish flowers mostly in interrupted spikes. Stamens usually as many as the lobes of the calyx and opposite them. Ovar...
-Order LXXVII. Amarantaceae. (Amaranth F.)
Homely weeds, a good deal like the plants of the last Order, but the flower-clusters are interspersed with dry and chaff-like (sometimes coloured) persistent bracts, usually 3 to each flower. Synopsi...
-Order LXXVIII. Polygonaceae. (Buckwheat F.)
Herbs, well marked by the stipules of the alternate leaves being in the form of membranous sheaths above the usually swollen joints of the stem (these obsolete in one Genus). Flowers usually perfect. ...
-Order LXXIX. Lauraceae. (Laurel Family.)
Trees or shrubs with spicy-aromatic bark and leaves, the latter simple (often lobed), alternate and marked with small transparent dots (visible under a lens). Sepals 6, petal-like. Flowers dioecious o...
-Order LXXX. Thymeleaceae. (Mezereum F.)
Shrubs with tough leather-like bark and entire leaves. Flowers perfect. Calyx tubular, resembling a corolla, pale yellow. Stamens twice as many as the lobes of the calyx (in our species 8). Style thre...
-Order LXXXL. Elaeagnaceae. (Oleaster F.)
Shrubs with perfect or dioecious flowers, and leaves which are scurfy on the under surface. The calyx-tube in the fertile flowers becomes fleshy and encloses the ovary, forming a berry-like fruit. Oth...
-Order LXXXII. Santalaceae. (Sandalwood F.)
Low herbaceous or partly woody plants (with us) with perfect flowers, these greenish-white, in terminal or axillary corymbose clusters. Calyx bell-shaped or urn-shaped, 4-5-cleft, adherent to the 1-ce...
-Order LXXXIII. Euphorbiaceae. (Spurge F.)
Plants with milky juice and monoecious flowers, represented in Canada chiefly by the two following genera: 1. Euphorbia L. Spurge. Flowers monoecious, the sterile and fertile ones both destitute of ...
-Order LXXXIV. Urticaceae. (Nettle F.)
Herbs, shrubs, or trees, with monoecious or dioecious (or, in the Elms, sometimes perfect) flowers, with a regular calyx free from the 1-2-celled ovary which becomes a 1-seeded fruit. Stamens opposite...
-Order LXXXV. Platanaceae. (Plane-Tree F.)
Represented only by the Genus Plat'anus. L. Plane-tree. Bottonwood P. occidenta'lis, L. (American Plane-tree or Sycamore.) A fine large tree found in south-western. Ontario. Leaves alternate, rather...
-Order LXXXVI. Juglandaceae. (Walnut P.)
Trees with alternate pinnate leaves and no stipules. Flowers monoecious. Sterile flowers in catkins. Fertile flowers solitary or in small clusters, with a regular 3-4-lobed calyx adherent to the ovary...
-Order LXXXVII. Myricaceae. (Sweet-Gale F.)
Shrubs with monoecious or dioecious flowers, both sterile and fertile ones collected in short catkins or heads. Leaves with resinous dots, usually fragrant. Fruit a 1-seeded dry drupe or little nut, u...
-Order LXXXVIII. Cupuliferae. (Oak Family.)
Shrubs or trees, with alternate simple leaves, deciduous stipules, and monoecious flowers. Sterile flowers in catkins (but in Beech in small heads); the fertile ones solitary or clustered, and furnish...
-Order LXXXIX. Betulaceae. (Birch Family.)
Trees or shrubs with monoecious flowers, both sorts in catkins, 2 or 3 flowers under each scale or bract of the catkin. Ovary 2-celled and 2-ovuled, but in fruit only 1-celled and 1-seeded. Fruit a sm...
-Order XC. Salicaceae. (Willow Family.)
Trees or shrubs with dioecious flowers, both sorts in catkins, one under each scale of the catkin. No calyx. Fruit 1-celled, many-seeded, the seeds furnished with tufts of down. (Part I., section 74, ...
-Order XCI. Empetraceae. (Crowberry Family)
Low shrubby evergreens, resembling heaths as to leaves and general aspect. Flowers dioecious or polygamous Calyx somewhat petal-like or none. Ovary 3-9-celled, berry-like in fruit. Synopsis Of The Ge...
-Order XCII. Ceratophyllaceae. (Hornwort F.)
Represented, with us, by a single species. Ceratophyl'lum L. Hornwort. C. demer'sum, L. An aquatic herb, with whorled finely dissected leaves, and minute axillary sessile monoecious flowers, without...
-Order XCIII. Coniferae. (Pine Family.)
Trees or shrubs with resinous juice and mostly monoecious flowers, these in catkins, except the last Genus (Taxus), in which the fertile flower is solitary and the fruit berrylike. Leaves awl-shaped o...
-Class II. Monocotyledons
For characters of the Class see Part I., chap. xv. I. Spadic'eous Division Flowers aggregated on a spadix (Part L, sec. 94), with or without a spathe, or sheathing bract. ...
-Order XCIV. Araceae. (Arum Family.)
Herbs with pungent juice and simple or compound leaves, these sometimes net-veined and hence suggesting that the plants may be Dicotyledons. Spadix usually accompanied by a spathe. Flowers either with...
-Order XCV. Lemnaceae. (Duckweed Family.)
Very small plants floating about freely on the surface of ponds and ditches, consisting merely of a little frond, commonly with a single root or a tuft of roots from the lower surface, and producing m...
-Order XCVI. Typhaceae. (Cat-Tail Family.)
Aquatic or marsh herbs with linear sword-shaped leaves, erect or floating, and monoecious flowers, either in separate heads or on different parts of the same spike or spadix, but without a spathe, and...
-Order XCVII. Naiadaceae. (Pondweed Family.)
Immersed aquatic herbs, with jointed stems and sheathing stipules. Leaves flat, immersed or floating. Flowers perfect or imperfect, inconspicuous, naked, or with a free scalelike calyx. Ovaries 1-cell...
-Order XCVIII. Alismaceae. (Water Plantain P.)
Marsh herbs, with flowers having 3 distinct sepals and 3 distinct petals, pistils either apocarpous or separating at maturity into distinct carpels, and hypogynous stamens 6-many. Flowers on scapes or...
-Order XCIX. Hydrocharidaceae. (Frog's-Bit F.)
Aquatic herbs, with dioecious or polygamo-dioecious flow ers on scape-like peduncles from a kind of spathe of one or two leaves, the perianth in the fertile flowers of 6 pieces united below into a tub...
-Order C. Orchidaceae. (Orchis Family.)
Herbs, well marked by the peculiar arrangement of the stamens, these being gynandrous, that is, borne on oradherent to the stigma or style. There is also usually but a single stamen, of two rather wid...
-Order C. Orchidaceae. (Orchis Family.). Continued
1. Orchis. L. Orchis 0. speeta'bilis, L. (Showy Orchis.) Scape 4-angled, 4-7 inches high, bearing a few flowers in a spike. The arching upper lip pink-purple, the labellum white; each flower in the a...
-Order CI. Iridaceae. (Iris Family.)
Herbs with equitant leaves and perfect flowers. The 6 petal-like divisions of the perianth in 2 (similar or dissimilar) sets of 3 each; the tube adherent to the 3-celled ovary. Stamens 3, distinct or ...
-Order CII. Amaryllidaceae. (Amaryllis F.)
Bulbous and scape-bearing herbs, with linear flat root-leaves, and regular and perfect 6-androus flowers, the tube of the petal-like 6-parted perianth adherent to the 3-celled ovary. Lobes of the peri...
-Order CIII. Dioscoreaceae. (Yam Family.)
Represented with us by the genus Dioscore'a Plunder. Yam. D. villo'sa, L. (Wild Yam-root.) A slender twiner, with knotted rootstocks, and net-veined, heart-shaped, 9-11-ribbed petioled leaves. Flowe...
-Order CIV. Smilaceae (Smilax Family.)
Climbing plants, more or less shrubby, with alternate ribbed and net-veined petioled leaves, and small dioecious flowers in umbels. Perianth regular, of 6 greenish sepals, free from the ovary. Stamens...
-Order CV. Liliaceae. (Lily Family.)
Herbs, distinguished as a whole by their regular and symmetrical flowers, having a 6-leaved perianth (but 4-leaved in one species of Smilacina) free from the usually 3-celled ovary, and as many stamen...
-Order CV. Liliaceae. (Lily Family.). Continued
1. Tril'lium. L. Wake-Robin 1. T. grandiflo'rum, Salisb. (Large White Trillium.) Leaves sessile, longer than broad. Peduncle erect. Petals white (rose-coloured when old), obovate. - Rich woods. 2. T...
-Order CVI. Juncaceae. (Rush Family.)
Grass-like or sedge-like plants, with, however, flowers similar in structure to those of the last Order. Perianth greenish and glumaceous, of 6 divisions in 2 sets of 3 each. Stamens 6 (occasionally ...
-Order CVII. Pontederiaceae. (Pickerel-Weed F.)
The most common representatives of this Order with us are 1. Pontederia. L. Pickerel-weed P. cordata, L. A stout plant growing in shallow water, sending up a scape bearing a single large arrow-heart...
-Order CVII. Xyridaceae. (Yellow-Eyed-Grass F.)
Rush-like herbs, With equitant leaves sheathing the base of a naked scape, terminated by a head of perfect 3-androus flowers, with glumaceous calyx and coloured corolla. Capsule 3-valved and 1-celled,...
-Order CIX. Eriocaulonaceae. (Pipewort F.)
Represented with us by the genus Eriocau'lon L. Pipewort. E. septangula're, Withering. A slender plant with a naked scape 2-6 inches high, growing in shallow water in the margins of our northern pon...
-IV. Glumaceous Division
Flowers without a proper perianth, but subtended by thin scales called glumes. This Division includes two very large Orders: Cyperaceae and Gramineae - both of which present many difficulties to the ...
-Order CX. Cyperaceae. (Sedge Family.)
Grass-like or rush-like herbs, easily distinguished from Grasses by the sheaths of the leaves, which in the Sedges are closed round the clum, not split. Flowers in spikes, each flower in the axil of a...
-Order CXI. Gramineae. (Grass Family.)
Herbs somewhat resembling those of the last Order, but the culms are hollow except at the joints, and the sheaths of the leaves are split on the opposite side of the culm from the blade. Fig. 259....
-Series II. Flowerless Or Cryptog'amous Plants
Plants not producing true flowers, but reproducing themselves by means of spores instead of seeds, the spores consisting merely of simple cells, and not containing an embryo. This series is subdivide...
-Order CXII. Filices. (Fern Family.)
Flowerless plants with distinct leaves known as fronds, these circinate in the bud, except in one suborder, and bearing on the under surface or margin the clustered or separate sporangia or spore-case...
-Order CXII. Filices. (Fern Family.). Part 2
Suborder II. Osmundaceae Sporangia naked, globular, pedicelled, reticulated, opening by a vertical slit. 16. Osmun'da. Fertile fronds or fertile portions of the frond much contracted, bearing naked ...
-Order CXII. Filices. (Fern Family.). Part 3
10. Asi'id'ium Swartz. Shield Fern. Wood Fern. * Stipes not chaffy. 1. A. thelyp'teris, Swartz. Fronds tall and narrow, lanceolate in outline, pinnate, the pinnae deeply pinnatifid, nearly at right ...
-Order CXIII. Equisetaceae.(Horsetail Family.)
The only genns of the Order is Equisetum. L. Horsetail. Scouring Rush Fig. 272 is a view of the fertile stem of Equisetum arvense, the Common Horsetail, of about the natural size. It may be observed...
-Order CXIV. Lycopodiaceae. (Club-Moss F.)
Chiefly moss-like plants; often with long running and branching stems, the sporangia solitary in the axils of the mostly awl-shaped leaves. Spores all of one kind. Lycopo'dium. L. Club-Moss * Spore-...
-Order CXV. Selaginellaceae
Small leafy plants, terrestrial or rooted in mud. Stem branching or short and corm-like. Spore-cases solitary, axillary or borne on the upper surface of the leaf at its base and enwrapped in its margi...
-Order CXVI. Salviniaceae
Small floating moss-like plants, with branching axis, covered with minute 2-lobed imbricated leaves. Sporocarps in pairs beneath the stem, very soft and thin-walled, the smaller ones acorn-shaped, con...
-Wild Plants Glossary
A Abortive, defective or barren. Acauiescent, apparently without a stem. Achene, a dry indehiscent 1-seeded fruit, with the pericarp free from the seed. Achlamydecras, without calyx and corolla. Acic...
-Wild Plants Glossary. Part 2
D Deciduous, falling off; not persistent. Decompound, more than once compound or divided. Decumbent, reclining. Decurrent, applied to a leaf when the lobes at the base extend down the sides of the...
-Wild Plants Glossary. Part 3
G Galea, a helmet-shaped piece of a perianth, as the upper lip of some labiate corollas. Gamopetalous, having the petals united together. Gamophyllons, having the pieces of the perianth united. Gibb...
-Wild Plants Glossary. Part 4
M Marginal, along or near the edge. Membranaceous, thin, somewhat transparent. Midrib, the central or main vein of a leaf. Monadelphous, with all the filaments grown together. Monocotyledonous, ha...
-Wild Plants Glossary. Part 5
R Raceme, a flower-cluster of lateral flowers, each on a pedicel of its own. Racemose, in racemes; resembling a raceme. Radiate, spreading from a centre; bearing ray-florets. Radical, proceeding f...
-Wild Plants Glossary. Part 6
T Tail, any slender prolongation. Terete, cylindrical. Terminal, at the apex. Ternate, in threes. Tetradynamoas, with four long stamens and two short ones. Throat, the entrance to the tube of a ...
-An Alphabetical List Of Common Cultivated Plants
Popular Name. Scientific Name. NaturalOrder. Abutilon. Abutilon striatum. Malvaceae. Aconite. Aconitum Napellus. Ranunculaceae. African M...
-An Alphabetical List Of Common Cultivated Plants. Part 2
Common Cultivated Plants Popular Name. Scientific Name. Natural Order. Cauliflower. Brassica oleracea(var.) Cruciferae Celery. Apium graveolens ...
-An Alphabetical List Of Common Cultivated Plants. Part 3
Common Cultivated Plants Popular Name. Scientific Name. Natural Order. Gaillardia. Gaillardia (sev. sp.) Composite. Gardenia. Gardenia florida. B...
-An Alphabetical List Of Common Cultivated Plants. Part 4
Common Cultivated Plants Popular Name. Scientific Name. NaturalOrder. Locust-tree. Robinia (sev. sp.) Leguminosae. Love-in-a-mist. Nigella Damascena. ...
-An Alphabetical List Of Common Cultivated Plants. Part 5
Common Cultivated Plants Popular Name. Scientific Name. Natural Order. Oleander. Nereum Oleander. Apocynacsae. Onion. Allium Cepa. Liliaceae. ...









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