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How To Know The Wild Flowers | by Frances Theodora (William Starr Dana)



A guide to the names, haunts, and habits of our common wild flowers

TitleHow To Know The Wild Flowers
AuthorFrances Theodora (William Starr Dana)
PublisherCharles Scribner's Sons
Year1893
Copyright1893, Charles Scribner's Sons
AmazonHow To Know The Wild Flowers

Illustrated By Marion Satterlee

"The first conscious thought about wild flowers was to find out their names - the first conscious pleasure - and then I began to see so many that I had not previously noticed. Once you wish to identify them, there is nothing escapes, down to the little white chickweed of the path and the moss of the wall."

- Richard Jefferies

One of these days some one will give us a hand-book of our wild flowers, by the aid of which we shall all be able to name those we gather in our walks without the trouble of analyzing them. In this book we shall have a list of all our flowers arranged according to color, as white flowers, blue flowers, yellow flowers, pink flowers, etc., with place of growth and time of blooming.

VI John Burroughs.

-Preface
The pleasure of a walk in the woods and fields is enhanced a hundredfold by some little knowledge of the flowers which we meet at every turn. Their names alone serve as a clew to their entire historie...
-How To Use The Book
Many difficulties have been encountered in the arrangement of this guide to the flowers. To be really useful such a guide must be of moderate size, easily carried in the woods and fields; yet there ar...
-How To Know The Wild Flowers. Introductory Chapter
Until a comparatively recent period the interest in plants centred largely in the medicinal properties, and sometimes in the supernatural powers, which were attributed to them. - O who can tell The h...
-How To Know The Wild Flowers. Introductory Chapter. Continued
Ingenious devices are resorted to in order to secure these desirable results. Many flowers make themselves useful to the insect world by secreting somewhere within their dainty cups little glands of h...
-Explanation Of Terms
The comprehension of the flower descriptions and of the opening chapters will be facilitated by the reading of the following explanation of terms. For words or expressions other than those which are i...
-Notable Plant Families
Although the great majority of plant families can only be distinguished by a combination of characteristics which are too obscure to obtain any general recognition, there are some few instances where ...
-Notable Plant Families. Continued
Pulse Family. - The Pulse family includes many of our common wood- and field-flowers. The majority of its members are easily distinguished by those irregular, butterfly-shaped blossoms which are descr...
-Blood-Root. Sanguinaria Canadensis. Poppy Family
Rootstock. - Thick, charged with a crimson juice. Scape. - Naked, one-flowered. Leaves. - Rounded, deeply-lobed. Flower. - White, terminal. Calyx. - Of two sepals falling early. Corolla. - Of eight to...
-Shad-Bush. June-Berry. Service-Berry - Amelanchier Oblongifolia. Rose Family
A tall shrub or small tree found in low ground. Leaves. - Oblong, acutely pointed, finely toothed, mostly rounded at base. Flowers. - White, growing in racemes. Calyx. - Five-cleft. Corolla. - Of five...
-Wood Anemone. Wind-Flower - Anemone Nemorosa. Crowfoot Family
Stem. - Slender. Leaves. - Divided into delicate leaflets. Flower. - Solitary, white, pink, or purplish. Calyx. - Of from four to seven petal-like sepals. Corolla. - None. Stamens and Pistils. - Numer...
-Rue Anemone - Anemonella Thalictroides. Crowfoot Family
Stem. - Six to twelve inches high. Leaves. - Divided into rounded leaflets. Flowers. - White or pinkish, clustered. Calyx. - Of five to ten petallike sepals. Corolla. - None. Stamens. - Numerous. Pist...
-Star-Flower - Trientalis Americana. Primrose Family
Stem. - Smooth, erect. Leaves. - Thin, pointed, whorled at the summit of the stem. Flowers. - White, delicate, star-shaped. Calyx. - Generally seven-parted. Corolla. - Generally seven-parted, flat, sp...
-Maianthemum Canadense. Lily Family
Stem. - Three to six inches high, with two or three leaves. Leaves. - Lance-shaped to oval, heart-shaped at base. Flowers. - White or straw-color, growing in a raceme. Perianth. - Four-parted. Stamens...
-Gold Thread - Coptis Trifolia. Crowfoot Family
Scape. - Slender, three to five inches high. Leaves. - Evergreen, shining, divided into three leaflets. Flowers. - Small, white, solitary. Calyx. - Of five to seven petal-like sepals which fall early....
-Pyxie. Flowering-Moss - Pyxidanthera Barbulata. Order Diapensiacea
Stems. - Prostrate and creeping, branching. Leaves. - Narrowly lance-shaped, awl-pointed. Flowers. - White or pink, small, numerous. Calyx. - Of five sepals. Corolla. - Five-lobed. Stamens. - Five. Pi...
-Crinkle-Root. Toothwort. Pepper-Root - Dentaria Diphylla. Mustard Family (P. 17)
Rootstock. - Five to ten inches long, wrinkled, crisp, of a pleasant, pungent taste. Stem. - Leafless below, bearing two leaves above. Leaves. - Divided into three toothed leaflets. Flowers. - White, ...
-Spring-Cress - Cardamine Rhomboidea. Mustard Family (P. 17)
Rootstock. - Slender, bearing small tubers. Stem. - From a tuberous base, upright, slender. Root-leaves. - Round and often heart-shaped. - Stem-leaves. - The lower rounded, the upper almost lance-shap...
-Whitlow-Grass - Draba Verna. Mustard Family (P. 17)
Scapes. - One to three inches high. Leaves. - All from the root, oblong or lance-shaped. Flowers. - White, with two-cleft petals. Pod. - Flat, varying from oval to oblong, lance-shaped. This little p...
-Shepherd's Purse - Capsella Bursa-Pastoris. Mustard Family (P. 17)
Stem. - Low, branching. Root-leaves. - Clustered, incised or toothed. Stem-leaves. - Arrow-shaped, set close to the stem. Flowers. - White, small, in general structure resembling other members of the ...
-May-Apple. Mandrake - Podophyllum Peltatum. Barberry Family
Flowering-stem. - Two-leaved, one-flowered. Flower less-stems. - Terminated by one large, rounded, much-lobed leaf. Leaves (of flowering-stems). - One-sided, five to nine-lobed, the lobes oblong, the ...
-Twin-Leaf. Rheumatism-Root - Jeffersonia Diphylla. Barberry Family
A low plant. Leaves. - From the root, long-stalked, parted into two rounded leaflets. Scape. - One-flowered. Flower. - White, one inch broad. Sepals. - Four, falling early. Petals. - Eight; flat, oblo...
-Harbinger-Of-Spring - Erigenia Bulbosa. Parsley Family (P. 15)
Stem. - Three to nine inches high, from a deep round tuber. Leaves. - One or two, divided into linear-oblong leaf-segments. Flowers. - White, small, few, in a leafy-bracted compound umbel. The pretty...
-Early Everlasting. Plantain-Leaved Everlasting - Antennaria Plantaginifolia. Composite Family (P. 13)
Stems. - Downy or woolly, three to eighteen inches high. Leaves. - Silky, woolly when young; those from the root, oval, three-nerved; those on the flowering stems, small, lance-shaped. Flower-heads. -...
-Spring Beauty - Claytonia Virginica. Purslane Family
Stem. - From a small tuber, often somewhat reclining. Leaves. - Two; opposite, long and narrow. Flowers. - White, with pink veins, or pink with deeper-colored veins, growing in a loose cluster. Calyx....
-Dutchman's Breeches. White-Hearts - Dicentra Cucullaria. Fumitory Family
Scape. - Slender. Leaves. - Thrice - compound. Flowers. - White and yellow, growing in a raceme. Calyx. - Of two small, scale-like sepals. Corolla. - Closed and flattened; of four somewhat cohering wh...
-Squirrel Corn - Dicentra Canadensis. Fumitory Family
The squirrel corn closely resembles the dutchman's breeches. Its greenish or pinkish flowers are heart-shaped, with short, rounded spurs. They have the fragrance of hyacinths, and are found blossoming...
-Foam-Flower. False Mitre-Wort - Tiarella Cordifclia. Saxifrage Family
Stem. - Five to twelve inches high, leafless, or rarely with one or two leaves. Leaves. - From the rootstock or runners, heart-shaped, sharply lobed. Flowers. - White, in a full raceme. Calyx. - Bell-...
-Early Saxifrage - Saxifraga Virginiensis. Saxifrage Family
Scape. - Four to nine inches high. Leaves. - Clustered at the root, somewhat wedge-shaped, narrowed into a broad leaf-stalk. Flowers. - White, small, clustered. Calyx. - Five-cleft. Corolla. - Of five...
-Mitre-Wort. Bishop's Cap - Mitella Diphylla. Saxifrage Family
Stem. - Six to twelve inches high, hairy, bearing two opposite leaves. Leaves. - Heart-shaped, lobed and toothed, those of the stem opposite and nearly sessile. Flowers. - White, small, in a slender r...
-Indian Poke. False Hellebore - Veratrum Viride. Lily Family
Root. - Poisonous, coarse and fibrous. Stem. - Stout, two to seven feet high, very leafy to the top. Leaves. - Broadly oval, pointed, clasping. Flowers. - Dull greenish, inconspicuous, clustered. Peri...
-Carrion-Flower. Cat-Brier - Smilax Herbacea. Lily Family
Stem. - Climbing, three to fifteen feet high. Leaves. - Ovate, or rounded heart-shaped, or abruptly cut off at base, shining. Flowers. - Greenish or yellowish, small, clustered, unisexual. Perianth. -...
-Larger White Trillium - Trillium Grandiflorum. Lily Family
Stem. - Stout, from a tuber-like rootstock. Leaves. - Ovate, three in a whorl, a short distance below the flower. Flower. - Single, terminal, large, white, turning pink or marked with green. Calyx. - ...
-Ground-Nut. Dwarf Ginseng - Aralia Trifolia. Ginseng Family
Stem. - Four to eight inches high. Leaves. - Three in a whorl, divided into from three to five leaflets. Flowers. - White, in an umbel. Fruit. - Yellowish, berry-like. Root. - A globular tuber. The t...
-Ginseng - Aralia Quinquefolia. Ginseng Family
Root. - Large and spindle-shaped, often forked. Stem. - About one foot high. Leaves. - Three in a whorl, divided into leaflets. Flowers. - Greenish-white, in a simple umbel. Fruit. - Bright red, berry...
-Wild Sarsaparilla - Aralia Nudicaulis. Ginseng Family
Stem. - Bearing a single large, long-stalked, much-divided leaf, and a shorter naked scape which bears the rounded flower-clusters. Flowers. - Greenish-white, in umbels. Calyx. - With short or obsolet...
-Spikenard - Aralia Racemosa. Ginseng Family
Root. - Large and aromatic. Stem. - Often tall and widely branched, leafy. Leaves. - Divided into many leaflets. Flowers. Greenish-white, in clusters which are racemed. Fruit. - Dark purple, berry-lik...
-Canada Violet - Viola Canadensis. Violet Family
Stem. - Leafy, upright, one to two feet high. Leaves. - Heart-shaped, pointed, toothed. Flo7vers. - White, veined with purple, violet beneath, otherwise greatly resembling the common blue violet. We ...
-Solomon's Seal - Polygonatiun Biflorum. Lily Family
Stem. - Slender, curving, one to three feet long. Leaves. - Alternate, oval, set close to the stem. Flowers. - Greenish-white or straw-colored, bell-shaped, nodding from the axils of the leaves. Peria...
-Choke-Berry - Pyrus Arbutifolia. Rose Family
A shrub from one to three feet high. Leaves. - Oblong or somewhat lance-shaped, finely toothed, downy beneath. Flowers. - White or reddish, small, clustered. Calyx. - Five-cleft. Corolla. - Of five pe...
-Creeping Snowberry - Chiogenes Serpyllifolia. Heath Family
Stem. - Slender, trailing and creeping. Leaves. - Evergreen, small, ovate, pointed. Flowers. - Small, white, solitary from the axils of the leaves. Calyx. - Four-parted, with four large bracelets bene...
-Bearberry - Arctostaphylos Uva-Ursi. Heath Family
A trailing shrub. Leaves. - Thick and evergreen, smooth, somewhat wedge-shaped. Flowers. - Whitish, clustered. Calyx. - Small. Corolla. - Urn-shaped, five-toothed. Stamens. - Ten. Pistil. - One. Fruit...
-False Solomon's Seal - Smilacina Racemosa. Lily Family
Stem. - Usually curving, one to three feet long. Leaves. - Oblong, veiny. Flowers. - Greenish-white, small, in a terminal raceme. - Perianth. - Six-parted. Stamens. - Six. Pistil. - One. Fruit. - A pa...
-Maple-Leaved Viburnum. Dockmackie. Arrow-Wood - Viburnum Acerifolium. Honeysuckle Family
A shrub from three to six feet high. Leaves. - Somewhat three-lobed, resembling those of the maple, downy underneath. Flowers. - White, small, in flat-topped clusters. Calyx. - Five-toothed. Corolla. ...
-Hobble-Bush. American Wayfaring-Tree - Viburnum Lanlanoides. Honeysuckle Family
Leaves. - Rounded, pointed, closely toothed, heart-shaped at the base, the veins beneath as well as the stalks and small branches being covered with a rusty scurf. Fruit. - Coral-red, berry-like. The...
-Round-Leaved Dogwood - Cornus Circinata. Dogwood Family
A shrub six to ten feet high. Leaves. - Rounded, abruptly pointed. Flowers. - Small, white, in flat, spreading clusters. Calyx. - Minutely four-toothed. Corolla. - Of four white, oblong, spreading pet...
-Bellwort - Oakesia Sessilifolia. Lily Family
Stem. - Acutely angled, rather low. Leaves. - Set close to or clasping the stem, pale, lance-oblong. Flower. - Yellowish-white or straw-color. Perianth. - Narrowly bell-shaped, divided into six distin...
-Hawthorn. White-Thorn - Cratagus Coccinea. Rose Family
A shrub or small tree, with spreading branches, and stout thorns or spines. Leaves. - On slender leaf-stalks, thin, rounded, toothed, sometimes lobed. Flowers. - White or sometimes reddish, rather lar...
-White Baneberry - Actaea Alba. Crowfoot Family
Stem. - About two feet high. Leaves. - Twice or thrice-compound, leaflets incised and sharply toothed. Flowers. - Small, white, in a thick, oblong, terminal raceme. Calyx. - Of four to five tiny sepal...
-Mountain Holly - Nemopanthes Fascicularis. Holly Family
A much-branched shrub, with ash-gray bark. Leaves. - Alternate, oblong, smooth, on slender leaf-stalks. Flowers. - White, some perfect, others unisexual; solitary or clustered in the axils of the leav...
-Winterberry. Black Alder - Ilex Verticillata. Holly Family
A shrub, common in low grounds. Leaves. - Oval or lance-shaped, pointed at apex and base, toothed. Flowers. - White; some perfect, others unisexual; clustered on very short flower-stalks in the axils ...
-Red-Berried Elder - Sambucus Racemosa. Honeysuckle Family
Stems. - Woody, two to twelve feet high. Leaves. - Divided into leaflets. Flowers. - White, resembling those of the Common Elder (p. 78), but borne in pyramidal instead of in flat-topped clusters. Fru...
-Bunch-Berry. Dwarf Cornel - Conus Canadensis. Dogwood Family
Stem. - Five to seven inches high. - Leaves. - Ovate, pointed, the upper crowded into an apparent whorl of four to six. Flowers. - Greenish, small, in a cluster which is surrounded by a large and show...
-Sweet Bay. Laurel Magnolia - Magnolia Glauca. Magnolia Family
A shrub from four to twenty feet high. Leaves. - Oval to broadly lance-shaped, from three to six inches long. Flowers. - White, two inches long, growing singly at the ends of the branches. Calyx. - Of...
-Lizard's Tail - Saururus Cernuus. Pepper Family
Stem. - Jointed, often tall. Leaves. - Alternate, heart-shaped. Flowers. - White, without calyx or corolla, crowded into a slender, wand-like terminal spike which nods at the end. Stamens. - Usually s...
-Moonseed - Menispermum Canadense. Moonseed Family
Stem. - Woody, climbing. Leaves. - Three to seven-angled or lobed, their stalks fastened near the edge of the lower surface. Flowers. - White or yellowish, in small loose clusters, unisexual. Calyx. -...
-Mountain Laurel. Spoonwood. Calico-Bush - Kalmia Latifolia. Heath Family
An evergreen shrub. Leaves. - Oblong, pointed, shining, of a leathery texture. Flowers. - White or pink, in terminal clusters. Calyx. - Five-parted. Corolla. - Marked with red, wheel-shaped, five-lobe...
-White Swamp Honeysuckle. Clammy Azalea - Rhododendron Viscosum. Heath Family
A shrub from three to ten feet high. Leaves. - Oblong. Flowers. - White, clustered, appearing after the leaves. Calyx-lobes. - Minute. Corolla. - White, five-lobed, the clammy tube much longer than th...
-American Rhododendron. Great Laurel - Rhododendron Maximum. Heath Family
A shrub from six to thirty-five feet high. Leaves. - Thick and leathery, oblong, entire. Flowers. - White or pink, clustered. Calyx. - Minute, five-toothed. Corolla. - Somewhat bell-shaped, five-parte...
-Wood Sorrel - Oxalis Acetosella. Geranium Family
Scape. - One-flowered, two to five inches high. Leaves. - Divided into three clover - like leaflets. Flower. - White veined with red, solitary. Calyx. - Of five sepals. Corolla. - Of five petals. Stam...
-Poison Sumach - Rhus Venenata. Cashew Family
A shrub from six to eighteen feet high. Leaves. - Divided into seven to thirteen oblong entire leaflets. Flowers. - Greenish or yellowish-white, in loose axillary clusters; some perfect, others unisex...
-Staghorn Sumach - Rhus Typhina. Cashew Family
A shrub or tree from ten to thirty feet high. Leaves. - Divided into eleven to thirty-one somewhat lance-shaped, toothed leaflets. Flowers. - Greenish or yellowish-white, in upright terminal clusters,...
-Poison Ivy - Rhus Toxicodendron. Cashew Family
' A shrub which usually climbs by means of rootlets over rocks, walls, and trees; sometimes low and erect. Leaves. - Divided into three somewhat four-sided pointed leaflets. Flowers. - Greenish or yel...
-Virginia Creeper. American Ivy - Ampelopsis Quinquefolia. Vine Family
A woody vine climbing by means of disk-bearing tendrils, and also by rootlets. Leaves. - Usually divided into five leaflets. Flowers. - Greenish, small, clustered, appearing in July. Fruit. - A small,...
-Shin-Leaf - Pyrola Clliptica. Heath Family
Scape, - Upright, scaly, terminating in a many-flowered raceme. Leaves. - From the root, thin and dull, somewhat oval. Flowers. - White, nodding. Calyx. - Five-parted. Corolla. - Of five rounded, conc...
-Common Black Huckleberry - Gaylussacia Resinosa. Heath Family
One to three feet high. Stems. - Shrubby, branching. Leaves. - Oval or oblong, sprinkled more or less with waxy, resinous atoms. Flowers. - White, reddish, or purplish, bell-shaped, growing in short, ...
-Common Blueberry - Vaccinium Corymbosun. Heath Family
Five to ten feet high. The blueberry has a bloom which is lacking in the huckleberry. It is found in swamps or low thickets in late summer. ...
-Squaw Huckleberry - Vaccinium Stamineum. Heath Family
Two or three feet high. Stems. - Diffusely branched. This large greenish or yellowish berry is hardly edible. The flowers appear in June, and are easily recognized by their protruding stamens. The le...
-Pipsissewa. Prince's Pine - Chimaphila Umbellala. Heath Family
Stem. - Four to ten inches high, leafy. Leaves. - Somewhat whorled or scattered, evergreen, lance-shaped, with sharply toothed edges. Flowers. - White or purplish, fragrant, in a loose terminal cluste...
-Spotted Pipsissewa - Chimaphila Maculata. Heath Family
The spotted pipsissewa blossoms a little later than its twin-sister. Its slightly toothed leaves are conspicuously marked with white. White Daisy. White-weed. Ox-eyed Daisy. Chrysanthemum Leucanthem...
-Daisy Fleabane. Sweet Scabious - Erigeron Annuus. Composite Family (P. 13)
Stem. - Stout, from three to five feet high, branched, hairy. Leaves. - Coarsely and sharply toothed, the lowest ovate, the upper narrower. Flower-heads. - Small, clustered, composed of both ray and d...
-Mayweed. Chamomile - Anthemis Cotula. Composite Family (P. 13)
Stem. - Branching. Leaves. - Finely dissected. Flower-heads. - Composed of white ray and yellow disk-flowers, resembling the common white daisy. In midsummer the pretty daisy-like blossoms of this st...
-New Jersey Tea. Red-Root - Ceanothus Americanus. Buckthorn Family
Root. - Dark red. Stem. - Shrubby, one to three feet high. Flowers. - White, small, clustered. Calyx. - White, petal-like, five-lobed, incurved. Corolla. - With five long-clawed hooded petals....
-Bastard Toadflax - Comandra Umbellata. Sandalwood Family
Stem. - Eight to ten inches high, branching, leafy. Leaves. - Alternate, oblong, pale. Flowers. - Greenish-white, small, clustered. Calyx. - Bell or urn-shaped. Corolla. - None. Stamens. - Five. Pisti...
-Wintergreen. Checkerberry. Mountain Tea - Gaultheria Procumbens. Heath Family
Stem. - Three to six inches high, slender, leafy at the summit. Leaves. - Oval, shining, evergreen. Flowers. - White, growing from the axils of the leaves. Calyx. - Five-lobed. Corolla. - Urn-shaped, ...
-White Sweet Clover. White Melilot - Melilotus Alba. Pulse Family (P. 16)
Stem. - Two to four feet high. Leaves. - Divided into three-toothed leaflets. Flowers. - Papilionaceous, white, growing in spike-like racemes. Like its yellow sister, M. officinalis, this plant is fo...
-Waterleaf - Hydrophyllum Virginicum. Waterleaf Family
One to two feet high. Leaves. - Divided into five to seven oblong, pointed, toothed divisions. Flowers. - White or purplish, in one-sided raceme-like clusters which are usually coiled from the apex wh...
-Indian Pipe. Corpse-Plant - Monotropa Uniflora. Heath Family
A low fleshy herb from three to eight inches high, without green foliage, of a wax-like appearance, with colorless bracts in the place of leaves. Flower. - White or pinkish, single, terminal, nodding....
-Field Chickweed - Cerastium Arvense. Pink Family
Four to eight inches high. Stems. - Slender. Leaves. - Linear or narrowly lance-shaped. Flowers. - White, large, in terminal clusters. Calyx. - Usually of five sepals. Corolla. - Usually of five two-l...
-Enchanter's Nightshade - Circoea Lutetiana. Evening Primrose Family
Stem. - One or two feet high. Leaves. - Opposite, thin, ovate, slightly toothed. Flowers. - Dull white, small, growing in a raceme. Calyx. - Two-lobed. Corolla. - Of two petals. Stamens. - Two. Pistil...
-Thimble-Weed - Anemone Virginiana. Crowfoot Family
Stem. - Two or three feet high. Leaves. - Twice or thrice cleft, the divisions again toothed or cleft. Flowers. - Greenish or sometimes white, borne on long, upright flower-stalks. Calyx. - Of five se...
-Cleavers. Goose-Grass. Bedstraw - Galium Aparine. Madder Family
Stem. - Weak and reclining, bristly. Leaves. - Lance-shaped, about eight in a whorl. Flowers. - White, small, growing from the axils of the leaves. Calyx-teeth. - Obsolete. Corolla. - Usually four-par...
-Bitter-Sweet. Wax-Work - Celastrus Scandens. Staff-Tree Family
Stem, - Woody, twining. Leaves. - Alternate, oblong, finely toothed, pointed. Flowers, - Small, greenish, or cream-color, in raceme-like clusters, appearing in June. Pod. - Orange-colored, globular, a...
-Culver's Root - Veronica Virginica. Figwort Family
Stem. - Straight and tall, from two to six feet high. Leaves. - Whorled, lance-shaped, finely toothed. Flowers. - White, small, growing in slender clustered spikes. Calyx. - Irregularly four or five-t...
-Black Cohosh. Bugbane. Black Snakeroot - Cimicifuga Racemosa. Crowfoot Family
Stem. - Three to eight feet high. Leaves. - Divided, the leaflets toothed or incised. Flowers. - White, growing in elongated wand-like racemes. Calyx. - Of four or five white petal-like sepals, fallin...
-Common Elder - Sambucus Canadensis. Honeysuckle Family
Stems. - Scarcely woody, five to ten feet high. Leaves. - Divided into toothed leaflets. Flowers. - White, small, in flat-topped clusters. Calyx. - Lobes minute or none. Corolla. - With five spreading...
-Spurge - Euphorbia Corollata. Spurge Family
Stem. - Two or three feet high. Leaves. - Ovate, lance-shaped or linear. Flowers. - Clustered within the usually five-lobed, cup-shaped involucre which was formerly considered the flower itself; the m...
-Partridge Vine - Mitchella Repens. Madder Family
Stems. - Smooth and trailing. Leaves. - Rounded, evergreen, veined with white. Flowers. - White, fragrant, in pairs. Calyx. - Four-toothed. Corolla. - Funnel-form, with four spreading lobes, bearded w...
-Ragged Fringed Orchis - Habenaria Lacera. Orchis Family (P. 17)
Leaves. - Oblong or lance-shaped. Flowers. - Greenish or yellowish-white, growing in a spike. These two orchids are found in wet boggy places during the earlier summer, the green antedating the ragge...
-Button-Bush - Cephalanthus Occidentalis. Madder Family
A shrub three to eight feet high. Leaves. - Opposite or whorled in threes, somewhat oblong and pointed. Flowers. - Small, white, closely crowded in round button-like heads. Calyx. - Four-toothed. Coro...
-Mild Water-Pepper - Polygonum Hydropiperoides. Buckwheat Family
Stem. - One to three feet high, smooth, branching. Leaves. - Alternate, narrowly lance-shaped or oblong. Flowers. - White or flesh-color, small, growing in erect, slender spikes. Calyx. - Five-parted....
-Climbing False Buckwheat - Polygonum Scandens. Buckwheat Family
Stem. - Smooth, twining, and climbing over bushes, eight to twelve feet high. Leaves. - Heart or arrow shaped, pointed, alternate. Flowers. - Greenish or pinkish, in racemes. Calyx. - Five-parted, wit...
-Dalibarda Repens. Rose Family
Scape. - Low. Leaves. - Heart-shaped, wavy-toothed. Flowers. - White, one or two borne on each scape. Calyx. - Deeply five or six-parted, three of the divisions larger and toothed. Corolla. - Of five ...
-Starry Campion - Silene Stellata. Pink Family
Stem. - Swollen at the joints, about three feet high. Leaves. - Whorled in fours, oval, taper-pointed. Flowers. - White, in a large pyramidal cluster. Calyx. - Inflated, five-toothed. Corolla. - Of fi...
-Colic-Root. Star-Grass - Aletris Farinosa. Bloodwort Family
Leaves. - Thin, lance-shaped, in a spreading cluster from the root. Scape. - Slender, two to three feet high. Flowers. - White, small, growing in a wand-like, spiked raceme. Perianth. - Six-cleft at t...
-Tall Meadow Rue - Thalictrum Polygamum. Crowfoot Family
Four to eight feet high. Leaves. - Divided into many firm, rounded leaflets. Flowers. - White, in large clusters; some perfect, others unisexual. Calyx. - Of four or five small petal-like sepals which...
-White Avens - Geum Album. Rose Family
Stem. - Slender, about two feet high. Root-leaves. - Divided into from three to five leaflets, or entire. Stem-leaves. - Three-lobed or divided, or only toothed. Flowers. - White. Calyx. - Deeply five...
-Meadow-Sweet - Spiraa Salicifolia. Rose Family
Stem. - Nearly smooth, two or three feet high. Leaves. - Altternate, somewhat lance-shaped, toothed. Flowers. - Small, white or flesh-color, in pyramidal clusters. Calyx. - Five-cleft. Corolla. - Of f...
-White Water-Lily - Nymphoea Odorata. Water-Lily Family
Leaves. - Rounded, somewhat heart-shaped, floating on the surface of the water. Flowers. - Large, white, or sometimes pink, fragrant. Calyx. - Of four sepals which are green without. Corolla. - Of man...
-White Vervain - Verbena Urticoefolia. Verbena Family
Three to five feet high. Leaves. - Oval, coarsely toothed. Flowers. - Small, white, in slender spikes, otherwise resembling Purple Vervain. It almost excites one's incredulity to be told that this un...
-Round-Leaved Sundew - Drosera Rotundifolia. Sundew Family
Scape. - A few inches high. Leaves. - Rounded, abruptly narrowed into spreading, hairy leaf-stalks; beset with reddish, gland-bearing bristles. Flowers. - White, growing in a one-sided raceme, which s...
-Pokeweed. Garget. Pigeon-Berry - Phytolacca Decandra. Pokeweed Family
Stems. - In length from six to ten feet high; purple-pink or bright red, stout. Leaves. - Large, alternate, veiny. Flowers. - White or pinkish, the green ovaries conspicuous, growing in racemes. Calyx...
-White Fringed Orchis - Habenaria Blephariglottis. Orchis Family (P. 17)
About one foot high. Leaves. - Oblong or lance-shaped, the upper passing into pointed bracts. Flowers. - Pure white, with a slender spur and fringed lip; growing in an oblong spike. This seems to me ...
-Rattlesnake-Plantain - Goodyera Pubescens. Orchis Family (P. 17)
Scape. - Six to twelve inches high. Leaves. - From the root in a sort of flat rosette; conspicuously veined with white; thickish, evergreen. Flowers. - Small, greenish-white, crowded in a close spike....
-Common Yarrow. Milfoil - Achillea Millefolium. Composite Family (P. 13)
(Stem. - Simple at first, often branching near the summit. Leaves. - Divided into finely toothed segments. Flower-heads. - White, occasionally pink, clustered, small, made up of both ray and disk-flow...
-Wild Carrot. Bird's Nest. Queen Anne's Lace - Daucus Carota. Parsley Family (P. 15)
Stems. - Tall and slender. Leaves. - Finely dissected. Flowers. - White, in a compound umbel, forming a circular flat-topped cluster. Plate XXVIII. Wild Carrot. - D. Carota. Yarrow. -A. millefolium...
-Water Hemlock. Spotted Cowbane - Cicuta Maculata. Parsley Family (P. 15)
Stem. - Smooth, stout, from two to six feet high, streaked with purple. Leaves. - Twice or thrice-compound, leaflets coarsely toothed. Flowers. - White, in compound umbels, the little umbels composed ...
-Mock Bishop-Weed - Discopleura Capillacea. Parsley Family (P. 15)
One or two feet high, occasionally much taller. Stems. - Branching. Leaves. - Dissected into fine, thread-like divisions. Flowers. - White, very small, growing in compound umbels with thread-like brac...
-Sweet Cicely - Osmorrhiza Longistylis. Parsley Family (P. 15)
One to three feet high. Root. - Thick, aromatic, edible. Leaves. - Twice or thrice-compound. Flowers. - White, growing in a few-rayed compound umbel. The roots of the sweet Cicely are prized by count...
-Water-Parsnip - Sium Cicutaefolium. Parsley Family (P. 15)
Two to six feet high. Stem. - Stout. Leaves. - Divided into from three to eight pairs of sharply toothed leaflets. Flowers. - White, in compound umbels. This plant is found growing in water or wet pl...
-Arrow-Head - Sagittaria Variabilis. Water-Plantain Family
Scape. - A few inches to several feet high. Leaves. - Arrow-shaped. Flowers. - White, unisexual, in whorls of three on the leafless scape. Calyx. - Of three sepals. Corolla, - Of three white, rounded ...
-Water-Plantain - Alisma Plantago. Water-Plantain Family
Scape. - One to three feet high, bearing the flowers in whorled, panicled branches. Leaves. - From the root, oblong, lance-shaped or linear, mostly rounded or heart-shaped at base. Flowers. - White or...
-Ground Cherry - Physalis Virginiana. Nightshade Family
A strong-scented, low, much-branched and spreading herb. Leaves. - Somewhat oblong or heart-shaped, wavy-toothed. Flowers. - Greenish or yellowish-white, solitary on nodding flower-stalks. Calyx. - Fi...
-Turtle-Head - Chelone Glabra. Figwort Family
One to seven feet high. Stem. - Smooth, upright, branching. Leaves. - Opposite, lance-shaped, toothed. Flowers. - White or pinkish, growing in a spike or close cluster. Calyx. - Of five sepals. Coroll...
-Common Dodder. Love Vine - Cuscuta Gronovii. Convolvulus Family
Stems. - Yellow or reddish, thread-like, twining, leafless. Flowers. - White, in close clusters. Calyx. - Five-cleft. Corolla. - With five spreading lobes. Stamens. - Five. Pistil. - One, with two sty...
-Traveller's Joy. Virgin's Bower - Clematis Virginiana. Crowfoot Family
Stem. - Climbing, somewhat woody. Leaves. - Opposite, three-divided. Flowers. - Whitish, in clusters, unisexual. Calyx. - Of four petal-like sepals. Corolla. - None. Stamens and Pistils. - Indefinite ...
-Sweet Pepperbush. White Alder - Clethra Alnifolia. Heath Family
A shrub from three to ten feet high. Leaves. - Alternate, ovate, sharply toothed. Flowers. - White, growing in clustered finger-like racemes. Calyx. - Of five sepals. Corolla. - Of five oblong petals....
-Thorn-Apple. Jamestown Weed - Datura Stramonium. Nightshade Family
Stem. - Smooth and branching. Leaves. - Ovate, wavy-toothed or angled. Flowers. - White, large and showy, on short flower-stalks from the forks of the branching stem. Calyx. - Five-toothed. Corolla. -...
-Wild Balsam-Apple - Echinocystis Lobata. Gourd Family
Stem. - Climbing, nearly smooth, with three-forked tendrils. Leaves. - Deeply and sharply five-lobed. Flowers. - Numerous, small, greenish-white, unisexual; the staminate ones growing in long racemes,...
-White Asters - Aster. Composite Family (P.13)
Flower-heads. - Composed of white ray-flowers with a centre of yellow disk-flowers. While we have far fewer species of white than of blue or purple asters, some of these few are so abundant in indivi...
-Boneset. Thoroughwort - Eupatorium Perfoliatum. Composite Family (P. 13)
Stem. - Stout and hairy, two to four feet high. Leaves. - Opposite, widely spreading, lance-shaped, united at the base around the stem. Flower-heads. - Dull white, small, composed entirely of tubular ...
-White Snakeroot - Eupatorium Ageratoides. Composite Family (P. 13)
About three feet high. Stem. - Smooth and branching. Leaves. - Opposite, long-stalked, broadly ovate, coarsely and sharply toothed. Flower-heads. - White, clustered, composed of tubular blossoms. Alt...
-Climbing Hemp-Weed - Mikania Scandens. Composite Family (P. 13)
Stem. - Twining and climbing, nearly smooth. Leaves. - Opposite, somewhat triangular-heart-shaped, pointed, toothed at the base. Flower-heads. - Dull white or flesh-color, composed of four tubular flo...
-Ladies' Tresses - Spiranthes Cernua. Orchis Family (P. 17)
Stem. - Leafy below, leafy-bracted above, six to twenty inches high. Leaves. - Linear-lance-shaped, the lowest elongated. Flowers. - White, fragrant, the lips wavy or crisped; growing in slender spike...
-Green-Flowered Milkweed - Asclepias Verticillata. Milkweed Family
Stem, - Slender, very leafy to the summit. Leaves. - Very narrow, from three to six in a whorl. Flowers. - Greenish-white, in small clusters at the summit and along the sides of the stem. Fruit. - Two...
-Groundsel Tree - Baccharis Halimifolia. Composite Family (P. 13)
A shrub from six to twelve feet high. Leaves. - Somewhat ovate and wedge-shaped, coarsely toothed on the upper entire. F'lower-heads. - Whitish or yellowish, composed of unisexual tubular flowers, the...
-Grass Of Parnassus - Parnassia Caroliniana. Saxifrage Family
Stem. - Scape-like, nine inches to two feet high, with usually one small rounded leaf clasping it below; bearing at its summit a single flower. Leaves. - Thickish, rounded, often heart-shaped, from th...
-Pearly Everlasting - Anaphilis Margaritacea. Composite Family (P. 13)
Stem. - Erect, one or two feet high, leafy. Leaves. - Broadly linear to lance-shaped. Flower-heads. - Composed entirely of tubular flowers with very numerous pearly white involucral scales. This spec...
-Fragrant Life-Everlasting - Gnaphalium Polycephalum. Composite Family (P. 13)
Stem. - Erect, one to three feet high, woolly. Leaves. - Lance-shaped. Flower-heads. - Yellowish-white, clustered at the summit of the branches, composed of many tubular flowers. This is the fragran...
-Marsh Marigold - Caltha Palustris. Crowfoot Family
Stem. - Hollow, furrowed. Leaves. - Rounded, somewhat kidney-shaped. Flowers. - Golden-yellow. Calyx. - Of five to nine petal-like sepals. Corolla. - None. Stamens. - Numerous. Pistils. - Five to ten,...
-Spice-Bush. Benjamin-Bush. Fever-Bush - Lindera Benzoin. Laurel Family
An aromatic shrub from six to fifteen feet high. Leaves. - Oblong, pale underneath. Flowers. - Appearing before the leaves in March or April, honey-yellow, borne in clusters which are composed of smal...
-Yellow Adder's Tongue. Dog's Tooth Violet - Erythronium Americanum. Lily Family
Scape. - Six to nine inches high, one-flowered. Leaves. - Two, oblong-lance-shaped, pale green mottled with purple and white. Flower. - Rather large, pale yellow marked with purple, nodding. Perianth....
-Celandine - Chelidonium Majus. Poppy Family
Stem. - Brittle, with saffron-colored, acrid juice. Leaves. - Compound or divided, toothed or cut. Flowers. - Yellow, clustered. Calyx. - Of two sepals falling early. Corolla. - Of four petals. Stamen...
-Celandine Poppy - Stylophorum Diphyllum. Poppy Family
Stem. - Low, two-leaved. Stem-leaves. - Opposite, deeply incised. Root-leaves. - Incised or divided. Flowers. - Deep yellow, large, one or more at the summit of the stem. Calyx. - Of two hairy sepals....
-Downy Yellow Violet - Viola Pubescens. Violet Family
Stems. - Leafy above, erect. Leaves. - Broadly heart-shaped, toothed. Flowers. - Yellow, veined with purple, otherwise much like those of the common blue violet. When beechen buds begin to swell, An...
-Common Cinquefoil. Five Finger - Potentilla Canadensis. Rose Family
Stem. - Slender, prostrate, or sometimes erect. Leaves. - Divided really into three leaflets, but apparently into five by the parting of the lateral leaflets. Flowers. - Yellow, growing singly from th...
-Shrubby Cinquefoil. Five Finger - Potentilla Fruticosa. Rose Family
Stem. - Erect, shrubby, one to four feet high. Leaves. - Divided into five to seven narrow leaflets. Flowers. - Yellow, resembling those of the common cinquefoil. Of all the cinquefoils perhaps this ...
-Silvery Cinquefoil - Potentilla Argentea. Rose Family
Stems. - Ascending, branched at the summit, white, woolly. Leaves. - Divided into five wedge-oblong, deeply incised leaflets, which are green above, white with silvery wool, beneath. The silvery cinq...
-Golden Ragwort. Squaw-Weed - Senecio Aureus. Composite Family (P. 13)
Stem. - One to three feet high. Root-leaves. - Rounded, the larger ones mostly heart-shaped, toothed, and long-stalked. Stem-leaves. - The lower lyre-shaped, the upper lance-shaped, incised, set close...
-Clintonia Borealis. Lily Family
Scape. - Five to eight inches high, sheathed at its base by the stalks of two to four large, oblong, conspicuous leaves. Flowers. - Greenish-yellow, rather large, rarely solitary. Perianth. - Of six s...
-Yellow Lady's Slipper. Whip-Poor-Will's Shoe - Cypripedium Pubescens. Orchis Family (P. 17)
Stem. - About two feet high, downy, leafy to the top, one to three-flowered. Leaves. - Alternate, broadly oval, many-nerved and plaited. Flowers. - Large, yellow. Perianth. - Two of the three brownish...
-Early Meadow Parsnip - Zizia Aurea. Parsley Family (P. 15)
One to three feet high. Leaves. - Twice or thrice-compound, leaflets oblong to lance-shaped, toothed. Flowers. - Yellow, small, in compound umbels. This is one of the earliest members of the Parsley ...
-Golden Club - Orontium Aquaticum. Arum Family
Scape. - Slender, elongated. Leaves. - Long-stalked, oblong, floating. Flowers. - Small, yellow, crowded over the narrow spike or spadix. When we go to the bogs in May to hunt for the purple flower o...
-Spearwort - Ranunculus Ambigens. Crowfoot Family
Stems. - One to two feet high. Leaves. - Oblong or lance-shaped, mostly toothed, contracted into a half-clasping leafstalk. Flowers. - Bright yellow, solitary or clustered. Calyx. - Of five sepals. Co...
-Indian Cucumber-Root - Medeola Virginica. Lily Family
Root. - Tuberous, shaped somewhat like a cucumber, with a suggestion of its flavor. Stem. - Slender, from one to three feet high, at first clothed with wool. Leaves. - In two whorls on the flowering p...
-Common Bladderwort - Utricularia Vulgaris. Bladderwort Family
Stems. - Immersed, one to three feet long. Leaves. - Many-parted, hair-like, bearing numerous bladders. Scape. - Six to twelve inches long. Flowers. - Yellow, five to twelve on each scape. Calyx. - Tw...
-Yellow Pond-Lily. Spatter Dock - Nuphar Advena. Water-Lily Family
Leaves. - Floating or erect, roundish to oblong, with a deep cleft at their base. Flowers. - Yellow, sometimes purplish, large, somewhat globular. Calyx. - Of five or six sepals or more, yellow or gre...
-Winter-Cress, Yellow Rocket. Herb Of St. Barbara - Barbarea Vulgaris. Mustard Family (P. 17)
Stem. - Smooth. Leaves. - The lower lyre-shaped; the upper ovate, toothed or deeply incised at their base. Flowers. - Yellow, growing in racemes. Pod. - Linear, erect or slightly spreading. Plate X...
-Black Mustard - Brassica Nigra. Mustard Family (P. 17)
Often several feet high. Stem. - Branching. Leaves. - The lower with a large terminal lobe and a few small lateral ones. Flowers. - Yellow, rather small, growing in a raceme. Pods. - Smooth, erect, ap...
-Wild Radish - Raphanus Raphanistrum. Mustard Family (P. 17)
One to three feet high. Leaves. - Rough, lyre-shaped. Flowers. - Yellow, veiny, turning white or purplish; larger than those of the black mustard, otherwise resembling them. Pod. - Often necklace-form...
-Cynthia. Dwarf Dandelion - Krigia Virginica. Composite Family (P. 13)
Stems. - Several, becoming branched, leafy. Leaves. - Earlier ones roundish; the latter narrower and often cleft. Flower-heads. - Yellow, composed entirely of strap-shaped flowers. In some parts of t...
-Rattlesnake-Weed - Hierachim Venosum. Composite Family (P. 13)
Stem or Scape. - One or two feet high, naked or with a single leaf, smooth, slender, forking above. Leaves. - From the root, oblong, often making a sort of flat rosette, usually conspicuously veined w...
-Dandelion - Taraxacum Officinale. Composite Family (P. 13)
If Emerson's definition of a weed, as a plant whose virtues have not yet been discovered, be correct, we can hardly place the dandelion in that category, for its young sprouts have been valued as a po...
-Poverty-Grass - Hudsonia Tomentosa. Rock-Rose Family
Bushy, heath-like little shrubs, seldom a foot high. (Gray.) Leaves. - Small, oval or narrowly oblong, pressed close to the stem. Flowers. - Bright yellow, small, numerous, crowded along the upper p...
-Bush-Honeysuckle - Diervilla Trifida. Honeysuckle Family
An upright shrub from one to four feet high. Leaves. - Opposite, oblong, taper-pointed. Flowers. - Yellow, sometimes much tinged with red, clustered usually in threes, in the axils of the upper leaves...
-Cow Wheat - Melampyrum Americanum. Figwort Family
Stem. - Low, erect, branching. Leaves. - Opposite, lance-shaped. Flowers. - Small, greenish-yellow, solitary in the axils of the upper leases. Calyx. - Bell-shaped, four-cleft. Corolla. - Two-lipped, ...
-Meadow Lily. Wild Yellow Lily - Lilium Canadense. Lily Family
Stem. - Two to five feet high. Leaves. - Whorled, lance-shaped. Flowers. - Yellow, spotted with reddish-brown, bell-shaped, two to three inches long. Perianth. - Of six recurved sepals, with a nectar-...
-Prickly Pear. Indian Fig - Opuntia Rafinesquii. Cactus Family
Flowers. - Yellow, large, two and a half to three and a half inches across. Calyx. - Of numerous sepals. Corolla. - Of ten or twelve petals. Stamens. - Numerous. Pistil. - One, with numerous stigmas. ...
-Four-Leaved Loosestrife - Lysimachia Quadrifolia. Primrose Family
Stem. - Slender, one or two feet high. Leaves. - Narrowly oblong, whorled in fours, fives, or sixes. Flowers. - Yellow, spotted or streaked with red, on slender, hair-like flower-stalks from the axils...
-Yellow Loosestrife - Lysimachia Stricta. Primrose Family
The yellow loosestrife bears its flowers, which are similar to those of L. quadrifolia, in a terminal raceme; it has opposite lance-shaped leaves. Its bright yellow clusters border the streams and bri...
-Rock-Rose. Frost-Weed - Helianthemum Canadense. Rock-Rose Family
About one foot high. Leaves. - Set close to the stem, simple, lance-oblong. Flowers. - Of two kinds : the earlier, more noticeable ones, yellow, solitary, about one inch across; the later ones small a...
-Steironema Ciliatum. Primrose Family
Stem. - Erect, two to four feet high. Leaves. - Opposite, narrowly oval, on fringed leaf-stalks. Flowers. - Yellow, on slender stalks from the axils of the leaves. Calyx. - Deeply five-parted. Corolla...
-Common Barberry - Berberis Vulgaris. Barberry Family
A shrub. Leaves. - Oblong, toothed, in clusters from the axil of a thorn. Flowers. - Yellow, in drooping racemes. Calyx. - Of six sepals, with from two to six bractlets without. Corolla. - Of six peta...
-Yellow Star-Grass - Hypoxis Erecta. Amaryllis Family
Scapes. - Slender, few-flowered. Leaves. - Linear, grass-like, hairy. Flowers. - Yellow. Perianth. - Six-parted, spreading, the divisions hairy and greenish outside, yellow within. Stamens. - Six. Pis...
-Wild Indigo - Baptisia Tinctoria. Pulse Family (P. 16)
Two or three feet high. Stems. - Smooth and slender. Leaves. - Divided into three rounded leaflets, somewhat pale with a whitish bloom, turning black in drying. Flowers. - Papilionaceous, yellow, clus...
-Yellow Clover. Hop Clover - Trifolium Agrarium. Pulse Family (P. 16)
Six to twelve inches high. Leaves. - Divided into three oblong leaflets. Flowers. - Papilionaceous, yellow, small, in close heads. Although this little plant is found in such abundance along our New ...
-Dyer's Green-Weed. Wood-Waxen. New England Whin - Genista Tinctoria. Pulse Family (P. 16)
A shrubby plant from one to two feet high. Leaves. - Lance-shaped. Flowers. - Papilionaceous, yellow, growing in spiked racemes. This is another foreigner which has established itself in Eastern New ...
-Yellow Sweet Clover. Yellow Melilot - Melilotus Officinalis. Pulse Family (P. 16)
Two to four feet high. Stem. - Upright. Leaves. - Divided into three toothed leaflets. Flowers. - Papilionaceous, yellow, growing in spike-like racemes. This plant is often found blossoming along the...
-Rattlebox - Crotalaria Sagittalis. Pulse Family (P. 16)
Stem. - Hairy, three to six inches high. Leaves. - Undivided, oval or lance-shaped. Flowers. - Papilionaceous, . yellow, but few in a cluster. Pod. - Inflated, many-seeded, blackish. The yellow flowe...
-Butter-And-Eggs. Toadflax - Linaria Vulgaris. Figwort Family
Stem. - Smooth, erect, one to three feet high. Leaves. - Alternate, linear or nearly so. Flowers. - Of two shades of yellow, growing in terminal racemes. Calyx. - Five-parted. Corolla. - Pale yellow t...
-Wild Senna - Cassia Marilandica. Pulse Family
Stem. - Three or four feet high. Leaves. - Divided into from six to nine pairs of narrowly oblong leaflets. Flowers. - Yellow, in short clusters from the axils of the leaves. Calyx. - Of five sepals. ...
-Partridge-Pea - Cassia Chamacrista. Pulse Family
Stems. - Spreading, eight inches to a foot long. Leaves. - Divided into from ten to fifteen pairs of narrow delicate leaflets, which close at night and are somewhat sensitive to the touch. Flowers. - ...
-Common St. John's-Wort - Hypericum Perforatum. St. John's-Wort Family
Stem. - Much branched. Leaves. - Small, opposite, somewhat oblong, with pellucid dots. Flowers. - Yellow, numerous, in leafy clusters. Calyx. - Of five sepals. Corolla. - Of five bright yellow petals,...
-St. Andrew's Cross - Ascyrum Crux-Andrea. St. John's-Wort Family
Stem. - Low, branched. Leaves. - Opposite, narrowly oblong, black-dotted. Flowers. - Light-yellow. Calyx. - Of four sepals, the two outer broad and leaf-like, the inner much smaller. Corolla. - Of fou...
-Common Mullein - Verbascum Thapsus. Figwort Family
Stem. - Tall and stout, from three to five feet high. Leaves. - Oblong, woolly. Flowers. - In a long dense spike. Calyx. - Five-parted. Corolla. - Yellow, with five slightly unequal rounded lobes. Sta...
-Moth Mullein - Verbascum Blattaria. Figwort Family
Stem. - Tall and slender. Leaves. - Oblong, toothed, the lower sometimes lyre-shaped, the upper partly clasping. Flowers. - Yellow or white, tinged with red or purple, in a terminal raceme. Calyx. - D...
-Yellow Fringed Orchis. Orange Orchis - Habenaria Ciliaris. Orchis Family (P. 17)
Stem. - Leafy, one to two feet high. Leaves. - The lower oblong to lance-shaped, the upper passing into pointed bracts. Flowers. - Deep orange color, with a slender spur and deeply fringed lip; growin...
-Jewel-Weed. Touch-Me-Not - Geranium Family
Impatiens pallida. Pale Touch-me-not. Flowers. - Pale yellow, somewhat spotted with reddish-brown; common northward. Impatiens fulva. Spotted Touch-me-not. Flowers. - Orange-yellow, spotted with re...
-Agrimony - Agrimonia Eupatoria. Rose Family
One or two feet high. Leaves. - Divided into several coarsely toothed leaflets. Flowers. - Small, yellow, in slender spiked racemes. Calyx. - Five-cleft, beset with hooked teeth. Corolla. - Of five pe...
-Yellow Wood Sorrel - Oxalis Stricta. Geranium Family
Stem. - Erect. Leaves. - Divided into three delicate clover-like leaflets. Flowers. - Golden-yellow. Calyx. - Of five sepals. Corolla. - Of five petals. Stamens. - Ten. Pistil. - One, with five styles...
-Sundrops. • - Aenothera Fruticosa. Evening Primrose Family
This is a day-blooming species of the evening primrose, with large, pale yellow blossoms and alternate oblong or narrowly lance-shaped leaves, and of a much less rank habit. In early summer our roadsi...
-Evening Primrose - Oenothera Biennis. Evening Primrose Family
Stout, erect, one to five feet high. Leaves. - Alternate, lance-shaped to oblong. Flowers. - Pale yellow, in a leafy spike, opening at night. Calyx. - With a long tube, four-lobed. Corolla. - Of four ...
-Horse Balm. Rich-Weed. Stone-Root - Collinsonia Canadensis. Mint Family (P. 16)
One to three feet high. Leaves, - Opposite, large, ovate, toothed, pointed. Flowers. - Yellowish, lemon-scented, clustered loosely. Calyx. - Two-lipped, the upper lip three-toothed, the lower two-clef...
-Black-Eyed Susan. Cone-Flower - Rudbeckia Hirta. Composite Family (P. 13)
Stem. - Stout and hairy, one to two feet high. Leaves. - Rough and hairy, the upper long, narrow, set close to the stem; the lower broader, with leaf-stalks. Flower-heads. - Composed of both ray and d...
-Rudbeckia Laciniata. Composite Family (P. 13)
Two to seven feet high. Stem. - Smooth, branching. Leaves. - The lower divided into lobed leaflets, the upper irregularly three to five-parted. Flower-heads. - Yellow, rather large, composed of both r...
-Golden Aster - Chrysopsis Mariana. Composite Family ( P. 13)
Stem. - Silky, with long weak hairs when young. Leaves. - Alternate, oblong. Flower-heads. - Golden-yellow, rather large, composed of both ray and disk-flowers. In dry places along the roadsides of S...
-Golden-Rod - Solidago. Composite Family (P. 13)
Flower-heads. - Golden-yellow, composed of both ray and disk-flowers. About eighty species of golden-rod are native to the United States: of these forty-two species can be found in our Northeastern S...
-Elecampane - Inula Helenium. Composite Family (P. 13)
Stem. - Stout, three to five feet high. Leaves. - Alternate, large, woolly beneath, the upper partly clasping. Flower-heads. - Yellow, large, composed of both ray and disk-flowers. When we see these ...
-Fall Dandelion - Leontodon Autumnalis. Composite Family (P. 13)
Scape. - Five to fifteen inches high, branching. Leaves. - From the root, toothed or deeply incised. Flower-heads. - Yellow, composed entirely of strap-shaped flowers; smaller than those of the common...
-Wild Sunflower - Helianthus Giganteus. Composite Family (P. 13)
Stem. - Rough or hairy, from three to ten feet high, branched above. Leaves. - Lance-shaped, pointed, rough to the touch, set close to the stem. Flower-heads. - Yellow, composed of both ray and disk-f...
-Sneezeweed. Swamp Sunflower - Helenium Autumnale. Composite Family (P. 13)
One to six feet high. Stem. - Angled, erect, branching. Leaves. - Alternate, lance-shaped. Flower-heads. - Yellow, composed of both ray and disk-flowers, the rays being somewhat cleft. As far north a...
-Stick-Tight. Bur Marigold, Beggar-Ticks - Bidens Frondosa. Composite Family (P. 13)
Two to six feet high. Stem. - Branching. Leaves. - Opposite, three to five-divided. Flower-heads. - Consisting of brownish-yellow tubular flowers, with a leaf-like involucre beneath. If one were only...
-Smooth False Foxglove - Gerardia Quercifolia. Figwort Family
Stem. - Smooth, three to six feet high, usually branching. Leaves. - The lower usually deeply incised, the upper narrowly oblong, incised, or entire. Flowers. - Yellow, large, in a raceme or spike. Ca...
-Tansy - Tanacetum Vulgare. Composite Family (P. 13)
Stem. - Two to four feet high. Leaves. - Divided into toothed leaflets. Flower-heads. - Yellow, composed of tiny flowers which are nearly, if not all, tubular in shape; borne in flat-topped clusters. ...
-Witch-Hazel - Hamamelis Virginiana. Witch-Hazel Family
A tall shrub. Leaves. - Oval, wavy-toothed, mostly falling before the flowers appear. Flowers. - Honey-yellow, clustered, autumnal. Calyx. - Four-parted. Corolla. - Of four long narrow petals. Stamens...
-Trailing Arbutus. Mayflower. Ground Laurel - Epigoea Repens. Heath Family
Stem. - With rusty hairs, prostrate or trailing. Leaves. - Rounded, heart-shaped at base, evergreen. Flowers. - Pink, clustered, fragrant. Calyx. - Of five sepals. Corolla. - Five-lobed, salver-shaped...
-Twin-Flower - Linnoea Borealis. Honeysuckle Family
Stem. - Slender, creeping and trailing. Leaves. - Rounded, shining and evergreen. Flowers. - Growing in pairs, delicate pink, fragrant, nodding on thread-like, upright flower-stalks. Calyx. - Five-too...
-Showy Orchis - Orchis Spectabilis. Orchis Family (P. 17)
Stem. - Four-angled, with leaf-like bracts, rising from fleshy, fibrous roots. Leaves. - Two, oblong, shining, three to six inches long. Flowers. - In a loose spike, purple-pink, the lower lip white. ...
-Twisted Stalk - Streptopus Roseus. Lily Family
Stems. - Rather stout and zigzag, forking and diverging. Leaves. - Taper-pointed, slightly clasping. Flowers. - Dull purplish-pink, hanging on thread-like flower-stalks from the axils of the leaves. P...
-Wild Pink - Silene Pennsylvanica. Pink Family
Stems. - Four to eight inches high. Leaves. - Those from the root narrowly wedge-shaped, those on the stem lance-shaped, opposite. Flowers. - Bright pink, clustered. Calyx. - Five-toothed. Corolla. - ...
-Pink Lady's Slipper. Moccason-Flower - Cypripedium Acaule. Orchis Family (P. 17)
Scape. - Eight to twelve inches high, two-leaved at base, downy, one-flowered. Leaves. - Two, large, many-nerved and plaited, sheathing at the base. Flower. - Solitary, purple-pink. Perianth. - Of thr...
-Calopogon Pulchellus. Orchis Family (P. 17)
Scape. - Rising about one foot from a small solid bulb. Leaf. - Linear, grass-like. Flowers. - Two to six on each scape, purple-pink, about one inch broad, the lip as if hinged at its insertion, beard...
-Pink Azalea. Wild Honeysuckle. Pinxter Flower - Swamp Pink - Rhododendron Nudiflorum. Heath Family
A shrub from two to six feet high. Leaves. - Narrowly oblong, downy underneath, usually appearing somewhat later than the flowers. Flowers. - Pink, clustered. Calyx. - Minute. Corolla. - Funnel-shaped...
-Rhododendron Rhodora. Heath Family
A shrub from one to two feet high. Leaves. - Oblong, pale. Flowers. - Purplish-pink. Calyx. - Small. Corolla. - Two-lipped, almost without any tube. Stamens. - Ten, not protruding. Pistil. - One, not ...
-Sheep Laurel. Lambkill - Kalmia Angustifolia. Heath Family
A shrub from one to three feet high. Leaves. - Narrowly oblong, light green. Flowers. - Deep pink, in lateral clusters. Calyx. - Five-parted. Corolla. - Five-lobed, between wheel and bell-shaped, with...
-American Cranberry - Vaccinium Macrocarpon. Heath Family
Stems. - Slender, trailing, one to four feet long. Leaves. - Oblong, obtuse. Flowers. - Pale pink, nodding. Calyx. - With short teeth. Corolla. - Four-parted. Stamens. - Eight or ten, protruding. Frui...
-Adder's Mouth - Pogonia Ophioglossoides. Orchis Family (P. 17)
Stem. - Six to nine inches high, from a fibrous root. Leaves. - An oval or lance-oblong one near the middle of the stem, and a smaller or bract-like one near the terminal flower, occasionally one or t...
-Common Milkwort - Polygala Sanguinea. Milkwort Family
Stem. - Six inches to a foot high, sparingly branched above, leafy to the top. Leaves. - Oblong-linear. Flowers. - Growing in round or oblong heads which are somewhat clover-like in appearance, bright...
-Polygala Polygama. Milkwort Family
Stems. - Very leafy, six to nine inches high, with cleistogamous flowers on underground runners. Leaves. - Lance-shaped or oblong. Flowers. - Purple-pink, loosely clustered in a terminal raceme. Keel ...
-Fringed Polygala - Polygala Paucifolia. Milkwort Family
Flowering-stems. - Three or four inches high, from long, prostrate or underground shoots which also bear cleistogamous flowers. Leaves. - The lower, small and scale-like, scattered, the upper, ovate, ...
-Moss Polygala - Polygala Cruciata. Milkwort Family
Stems. - Three to ten inches high, almost winged at the angles, with spreading opposite leaves and branches. Leaves. - Linear, nearly all whorled in fours. Flowers. - Greenish or purplish-pink, growin...
-Spreading Dogbane. Indian Hemp - Apocynum Androsoemifolium. Dogbane Family
Stems. - Erect, branching, two or three feet high. Leaves. - Opposite, oval. Flowers. - Rose-color veined with deep pink, loosely clustered. Calyx. - Five-parted. Corolla. - Small, bell-shaped, five-c...
-Hedge Bindweed - Convolvulus Americanus. Convolvulus Family
Stem. - Twining or trailing. Leaves. - Somewhat arrow - shaped. Flowers. - Pink. Calyx. - Of five sepals enclosed in two broad leafy bracts. Corolla. - Five-lobed, bell-shaped. Stamens. - Five. Pistil...
-Purple-Flowering Raspberry - Rubus Odoratus. Rose Family
Stem. - Shrubby, three to five feet high, branching, branches bristly and glandular. Leaves. - Three to five-lobed, the middle lobe prolonged. Flowers. - Purplish-pink, large and showy, two inches bro...
-Pale Corydalis - Corydalis Glauca. Fumitory Family
Stem. - Six inches to two feet high. Leaves. - Pale, divided into delicate leaflets. Flowers. - Pink and yellow, in loose clusters. Calyx. - Of two small, scale-like sepals. Corolla. - Pink, tipped wi...
-Common Milkweed - Asclepias Cornuti. Milkweed Family
Stem. - Tall, stout, downy, with a milky juice. Leaves. - Generally opposite or whorled, the upper sometimes scattered, large, oblong, pale, minutely downy underneath. Flowers. - Dull, purplish-pink, ...
-Herb Robert - Geranium Robertianum. Geranium Family
Stem. - Forking, slightly hairy. Leaves. - Three, divided, the divisions again dissected. Flowers. - Purple-pink, small. Calyx. - Of five sepals. Corolla. - Of five petals. Stamens. - Ten. Pistil. - O...
-Bush Clover - Lespedeza Procumbens. Pulse Family (P. 16)
Stems. - Slender, trailing, and prostrate. Leaves. - Divided into three clover-like leaflets. Flowers. - Papilionaceous, purplish-pink, veiny. Pod. - Small, rounded, flat, one-seeded. The flowers of ...
-Tick-Trefoil - Desmodium Canadense. Pulse Family (P. 16)
Stem. - Hairy, three to six feet high. Leaves. - Divided into three somewhat oblong leaflets. Flowers. - Papilionaceous, dull purplish-pink, growing in densely flowered racemes. Pod. - Flat, deeply lo...
-Tick Trefoil - Desmodium Nudiflorum. Pulse Family (P. 16)
Scape. - About two feet long. Leaves. - Divided into three broad leaflets, crowded at the summit of the flowerless stems. Flowers. - Papilionaceous, purplish-pink, small, growing in an elongated racem...
-Bouncing Bet. Soapwort - Saponaria Officinalis. Pink Family
Stem. - Rather stout, swollen at the joints. Leaves. - Oval, opposite. Flowers. - Pink or white, clustered. Calyx. - Of five united sepals. Corolla. - Of five pinkish, long-clawed petals (frequently t...
-Steeple-Bush. Hardhack - Spiraea Tomentosa. Rose Family
Stems. - Very woolly. Leaves. - Alternate, oval, toothed. Flowers. - Small, pink, in pyramidal clusters. Calyx. - Five-cleft. Corolla. - Of five rounded petals. Stamens. - Numerous. Pistils. - Five to...
-Deptford Pink - Dianthus Armeria. Pink Family
One or two feet high. Leaves. - Opposite, long and narrow, hairy. Flowers. - Pink, with white dots, clustered. Calyx. - Five-toothed, cylindrical, with awl-shaped bracts beneath. Corolla. - Of five sm...
-Purple Loosestrife - Lythmm Salicaria. Loosestrife Family
Stem. - Tall and slender. Leaves. - Lance-shaped, with a heart-shaped base, sometimes whorled in threes. Flowers. - Deep purple-pink, crowded and whorled in an interrupted spike. Calyx. - Five to seve...
-Meadow-Beauty. Deer-Grass - Rhexia Virginica. Melastoma Family
Stem. - Square, with wing-like angles. Leaves. - Opposite, narrowly oval. Flowers. - Purplish-pink, clustered. Calyx-tube. - Urn-shaped, four-cleft at the apex. Corolla. - Of four large rounded petals...
-Clammy Cuphea. Wax-Weed - Cuphea Viscosissima. Loosestrife Family
Stem. - Sticky, hairy, branching. Leaves. - Usually opposite, rounded, lance-shaped. Flowers. - Deep purplish-pink, solitary or in racemes. Calyx. - Tubular, slightly spurred at the base on the upper ...
-Sea Pink - Sabbatia Stellaris. Gentian Family
Stem. - Slender, loosely branched. Leaves. - Opposite, oblong to lance-shaped, the upper narrowly linear. Flowers. - Large, deep pure pink to almost white. Calyx. - Usually five-parted, the lobes long...
-Marsh St. John's-Wort - Elodes Campanulata. St. John's-Wort Family
Stem. - One or two feet high, often pinkish, later bright red. Leaves. - Opposite, set close to the stem or clasping by a broad base. Flowers. - Pinkish or flesh-color, small, closely clustered at the...
-Rose Mallow. Swamp Mallow - Hibiscus Moscheutos. Mallow Family
Stem. - Stout and tall, four to eight feet high. Leaves. - The lower three-lobed, the upper oblong, whitish and downy beneath. Flowers. - Large and showy, pink. Calyx. - Five-cleft, with a row of narr...
-Salt Marsh Fleabane - Pluchea Camphorata. Composite Family (P. 13)
Stem. - Two to five feet high. Leaves. - Pale, thickish, oblong or lance-shaped, toothed. Flower-heads. - Pink, small, in flat-topped clusters, composed entirely of tubular flowers. In the salt marsh...
-Hairy Willow-Herb - Epilobium Hirsutum. Evening Primrose Family
Three to five feet high. Stem. - Densely hairy, stout, branching. Leaves. - Mostly opposite, lance-oblong, finely toothed. Flower. - Purplish, pink, small, in the axils of the upper leaves, or in a le...
-Fireweed. Great Willow-Herb - Epilobium Anguslifolium. Evening Primrose Family
Stem. - Four to seven feet high. Leaves. - Scattered, lance-shaped, willow-like. Flowers. - Purplish-pink, large, in a long raceme. Calyx. - Four-cleft. Corolla. - Of four petals. Stamens. - Eight. Pi...
-Epilobium Coloratum. Evening Primrose Family
One to three feet high. Leaves. - Rather large, lance-shaped, sharply toothed. Flowers. - Pale pink, small, more or less nodding, resembling in structure those of the hairy willow-herb. Pistil. - One,...
-Purple Gerardia - Gerardia Purpurea. Figwort Family
Stem. - One to four feet high, widely branching. Leaves. - Linear, sharply pointed. Flowers. - Bright purplish-pink, rather large. Calyx. - Five-toothed. Corolla. - One inch long, somewhat tubular, sw...
-Joe-Pye-Weed. Trumpet-Weed - Eupatorium Purpureum. Composite Family (P. 13)
Stem. - Stout and tall, two to twelve feet high, often dotted. Leaves. - In whorls of three to six, oblong or oval, pointed, rough, veiny, toothed. Flower-heads. - Purplish-pink, small, composed entir...
-Pink Knotweed - Polygonum Pennsylvanicum. Buckwheat Family
One to four feet high. Stem. - Branching. Leaves. - Alternate, lance-shaped. Flowers. - Bright pink, growing in thick, short, erect spikes. Calyx. - Mostly five-parted, the divisions petal-like, pink....
-Sand Knotweed - Polygonella Articulata. (Formerly Polygonum Articulatum.) Buckwheat Family
Erect, branching, four to twelve inches high. Leaves. - Linear, inconspicuous. Flowers. - Rose-color, nodding, in very slender racemes, Calyx. - Five-parted. Corolla. - None. Stamens. - Eight. Pistil....
-Wild Columbine - Aquilegia Canadensis. Crowfoot Family
Twelve to eighteen inches high. Stem. - Branching. Leaves. - Much-divided, the leaflets lobed. Flowers. - Large, bright red, yellow within, nodding. Calyx. - Of five red petal-like sepals. Corolla. - ...
-Wake Robin. Birthroot - Trillium Erectum. Lily Family
Stem. - Stout, from a tuber-like rootstock. Leaves. - Broadly ovate, three in a whorl a short distance below the flower. Flower. - Single, terminal, usually purplish-red, occasionally whitish, pinkish...
-Wood Betony. Lousewort - Pedicularis Canadensis. Figwort Family
Stems. - Clustered, five to twelve inches high. Leaves. - The lower ones deeply incised, the upper less so. Flowers. - Yellow and red, growing in a short dense spike. Calyx. - Of one piece split in fr...
-Painted Cup - Castilleia Coccinea. Figwort Family
Stem. - Hairy, six inches to a foot high. Root-leaves. - Clustered, oblong. Stem-leaves. - Incised, those among the flowers three to five-cleft, bright scarlet toward the summit, showy. Flowers. - Pal...
-Wood Lily. Wild Red Lily - Lilium Philadclphicum, Lily Family
Stem. - Two to three feet high. Leaves. - Whorled or scattered, narrowly lance-shaped. Flower. - Erect, orange-red or scarlet, spotted with purple. Perianth. - Of six erect narrowly clawed sepals, wit...
-Turk's Cap Lily - Lilium Superbum. Lily Family
Stem. - Three to seven feet high. Leaves. - Lance-shaped, the lower whorled. Flowers. - Orange or scarlet, with purple spots within, three inches long, from three to forty growing in pyramidal cluster...
-Hound's Tongue - Cynoglossum Officinale. Borage Family
Stem. - Clothed with soft hairs. Leaves. - Alternate, hairy, the upper ones lance-shaped, clasping somewhat by a rounded or heart-shaped base. Flowers. - Purplish-red, growing in a curved raceme-like ...
-Butterfly-Weed. Pleurisy-Root - Asclepias Tuberosa. Milkweed Family
Stem. - Rough and hairy, one or two feet high, erect, very leafy, branching at the summit, without milky juice. Leaves. - Linear to narrowly lance-shaped. Flo7vers. - Bright orange-red, in flat - topp...
-European Hawkweed. Devil's Paintbrush - Hieracium Aurantiacum. Composite Family (P. 13)
Stem. - Hairy, erect. Leaves. - Hairy, oblong, close to the ground. Flower-heads. - Orange-red, composed entirely of strap - shaped flowers, clustered. In parts of New York and of New England the mid...
-Oswego Tea. Bee Balm - Monarda Didyma. Mint Family (P. 16)
Stem. - Square, erect, about two feet high. Leaves. - Opposite, ovate, pointed, aromatic; those near the flowers tinged with red. Flowers. - Bright red, clustered in a close round head. Calyx. - Reddi...
-Pimpernel. Poor-Man's-Weather-Glass - Anagallis Arvensis. Primrose Family
Stems. - Low, spreading. Leaves. - Opposite, ovate, set close to the stem. Flowers. - Red, occasionally blue or white, growing singly from the axils of the leaves. Calyx. - Five-parted. Corolla. - Fiv...
-Cardinal-Flower - Lobelia Cardinalis. Lobelia Family
Stem. - From two to four feet high. Leaves. - Alternate, narrowly oblong, slightly toothed. Flowers. - Bright red, growing in a raceme. Calyx. - Five-cleft. Corolla. - Somewhat two-lipped, the upper l...
-Trumpet Honeysuckle - Lonicera Sempervirens. Honeysuckle Family
A twining shrub. Leaves. - Entire, opposite, oblong, the upper pairs united around the stem. Flowers. - Deep red without, yellowish within; in close clusters from the axils of the upper leaves. Calyx....
-Liverwort. Liver-Leaf - Hepatica Triloba. Crowfoot Family
Scape. - Fuzzy, one-flowered. Leaves. - Rounded, three-lobed, from the root. Flowers. - Blue, white, or pinkish. Calyx. - Of six to twelve petallike sepals; easily taken for a corolla, because directl...
-Common Blue Violet - Viola Cucullata. Violet Family
Scape. - Slender, one-flowered. Leaves. - Heart-shaped, all from the root. Flowers. - Varying from a pale blue to deep purple, borne singly on a scape. Calyx. - Of five sepals extended into ears at th...
-Dog Violet - Viola Canina, Var. Muhlenbergii. Violet Family
Three to eight inches high. Stems. - Leafy. Leaves. - Heart-shaped, wavy-toothed. Flowers. - Pale violet. This is the commonest blue species of the leafy stemmed violets. It is found in wet, shady pl...
-Bluets. Quaker Ladies - Houstonia Coerulea. Madder Family
Stem. - Erect, three to five inches high. Leaves. - Very small, opposite. Flowers. - Small, delicate blue, lilac, or nearly white, with a yellowish eye. Calyx. - Four-lobed. Corolla. - Salver - shaped...
-Bluebells. Virginian Cowslip. Lungwort - Mertensia Virginica. Borage Family
One to two feet high. Stem. - Smooth, pale, erect. Leaves. - Oblong, veiny. Flowers. - Blue, pinkish in bud, in raceme-like clusters which are rolled up from the end and straighten as the flowers expa...
-Blue-Eyed Mary. Innocence - Collinsia Verna. Figwort Family
Six to twenty inches high. Stems. - Branching, slender. Leaves. - Opposite, the lower oval, the upper ovate - lance-shaped, clasping by the heart-shaped base. Flowers. - Blue and white, long-stalked, ...
-Forget-Me-Not - Mysotis Laxa. Borage Family
Stems. - Slender. Leaves. - Alternate, lance-oblong. Flowers. - Blue, small, growing in a raceme. Calyx. - Five-lobed. Corolla. - Salver-shaped, five-toothed. Stamens. - Five. Pistil. - One. Along th...
-Wild Phlox - Phlox Divaricata. Polemonium Family
Nine to eighteen inches high. Stems. - Spreading or ascending. Leaves. - Opposite, oblong or lance-oblong, Flowers. - Pale lilac-purple, in a loose, spreading cluster. Calyx. - With five slender teeth...
-Robin's Plantain. Blue Spring-Daisy - Erigeron Bellidifolius. Composite Family (P. 13)
Stem. - Simple, hairy, producing offsets from the base. Root-leaves. - Somewhat rounded or wedge-shaped. Stem-leaves. - Somewhat oblong, lance - shaped, partly clasping. Flower - heads. - Rather large...
-One-Flowered Cancer-Root - Aphyllon Uniflorum. Broom-Rape Family
Scape. - Slender, fleshy, three to five inches high, one-flowered. Leaves. - None. Flower. - Pale purple, solitary, one inch long, with a delicate fragrance. Calyx. - Five-cleft. Corolla. - Somewhat t...
-Violet Wood Sorrel - Oxalis Violacea. Geranium Family
Scape. - Five to nine inches high, several-flowered. Leaves. - Divided into three clover-like leaflets. Flowers. - Violet-colored, clustered on the scape. Calyx. - Of five sepals. Corolla. - Of five p...
-Pitcher Plant. Side-Saddle Flower. Huntsman's Cup - Sarracenia Purpurea. Pitcher-Plant Family
Scape. - Naked, one-flowered, about one foot high. Leaves. - Pitcher-shaped, broadly winged, hooded. Flower. - Red-purple, large, nodding. Calyx. - Of five colored sepals, with three bractlets at the ...
-Wild Geranium. Wild Cranesbill - Geranium Maculatum. Geranium Family
Stem. - Erect, hairy. Leaves. - About five-parted, the divisions lobed and cut. Flowers. - Pale pink-purple, rather large. Calyx. - Of five sepals. Corolla. - Of five petals. Stamens. - Ten. Pistil. -...
-Gill-Over-The-Ground. Ground Ivy - Nepeta Glechoma. Mint Family (P. 16)
Stems. - Creeping and trailing. Leaves. - Small and kidney - shaped. Flowers. - Bluish-purple, loosely clustered in the axils of the leaves. Calyx. - Five-toothed. Corolla. - Two-lipped, the upper lip...
-Larkspur - Delphinium. Crowfoot Family
Six inches to five feet high. Leaves. - Divided or cut. Flowers. - Blue or purplish, growing in terminal racemes. Calyx. - Of five irregular petallike sepals, the upper one prolonged into a spur. Coro...
-Wild Lupine - Lupinus Perennis. Pulse Family (P. 16)
Stem. - Erect, one to two feet high. Leaves. - Divided into seven to eleven leaflets. Flowers, - Blue, papilionaceous, showy, in a long raceme. Pod. - Broad, hairy. In June and July the long bright c...
-Harebell - Campanula Rotundifolia. Campanula Family
Stem. - Slender, branching, from five to twelve inches high. Root-leaves. - Heart-shaped or ovate, early withering. Stem-leaves. - Numerous, long and narrow. Flowers. - Bright blue, nodding from hair-...
-Blue-Eyed Grass - Sisyrinchium Angustifolium. Iris Family
Four to twelve inches high. Leaves. - Narrow and grass-like. Flowers. - Blue or purple, with a yellow centre. Perianth. - Six-parted, the divisions bristle-pointed. Stamens. - Three, united. Pistil. -...
-Venus's Looking-Glass - Specularia Perfoliata. Campanula Family
Stem. - Somewhat hairy, three to twenty inches high. Leaves. - Toothed, rounded, clasping by the heart-shaped base. Flowers. - Blue. Calyx. - Three, four, or five-lobed. Corolla. - Wheel-shaped, five-...
-Skull-Cap - Scutellaria. Mint Family (P.16)
Stem. - Square, usually one or two feet high. Leaves. - Opposite, oblong, lance-shaped or linear. Flowers. - Blue. Calyx. - Two-lipped, the upper lip with a small, helmet-like appendage which at once ...
-Fleur-De-Lis. Larger Blue Flag - Iris Versicolor. Iris Family
Stem. - Stout, angled on one side, leafy, one to three feet high. Leaves. - Flat and sword-shaped, with their inner surfaces coherent for about half of their length. Flowers. - Large and showy, violet...
-American Brooklime - Veronica Americana. Figwort Family
Stem. - Smooth, reclining at base, then erect, eight to fifteen inches high. Leaves. - Mostly opposite, oblong, toothed. Flowers. - Blue, clustered in the axils of the leaves. Calyx. - Four-parted. Co...
-Common Speedwell - Veronica Officinalis. Figwort Family
The little speedwell's darling blue is noticeable during June and July, when clusters of these tiny flowers brighten many a waste spot along the sunny roadsides. This is a hairy little plant, with a s...
-Arethusa - Arethusa Bulbosa. Orchis Family (P.17)
Scape. - Sheathed, from a globular bulb, usually one-flowered. Leaf. - Solitary, linear, nerved, hidden in the sheaths of the scape, protruding after flowering. (Gray.) Flower. - Rose-purple.large, ...
-Purple Fringed Orchises - Orchis Family (P.17). Habenaria Fimbriata
Leaves. - Oval or oblong; the upper, few, passing into lance-shaped bracts. Flowers. - Purple, rather large; with a fan-shaped, three-parted lip, its divisions fringed; with a long curving spur; growi...
-Habenaria Psycodes
Leaves. - Oblong or lance-shaped, the upper passing into linear bracts. Flowers. - Purple, fragrant, resembling those of IT. fimbriaia, but much smaller, with a less fringed lip; growing in a spike. ...
-American Pennyroyal - Hedeoma Pulegioides. Mint Family (P.16)
Stem. - Square, low, erect, branching, Leaves. - Opposite, aromatic, small. Flowers. - Purplish, small, whorled in the axils of the leaves. Calyx. - Two-lipped, upper lip three-toothed, the lower two-...
-Monkey-Flower - Mimuhis Ringens. Figwort Family
Stem. - Square, one to two feet high. Leaves. - Opposite, oblong or lance-shaped. Flowers. - Pale violet-purple, rarely white, growing singly from the axils of the leaves. Calyx. - Five-angled, five-t...
-Common Motherwort - Leonurus Cardiaca. Mint Family (P.16)
Stem. - Tall and upright. Leaves. - Opposite, the lower rounded and lobed, the floral wedge-shaped at base and three-cleft. Flowers. - Pale purple, in close whorls in the axils of the leaves. Calyx. -...
-Corn Cockle - Lychnis Githago. Pink Family
About two feet high. Leaves. - Opposite, long and narrow, pale green, with silky hairs. Flowers. - Rose-purple, large, long-stalked. Calyx-lobes. - Five, long and slender, exceeding the petals. Coroll...
-Blue Vervain. Simpler's Joy - Verbena Hastata. Vervain Family
Four to six feet high. Leaves. - Opposite, somewhat lance-shaped, the lower often lobed and sometimes halberd-shaped at base. Flowers. - Purple, small, in slender erect spikes. Calyx. - Five-toothed. ...
-Beard-Tongue - Pentstemon Pubescens. Figwort Family
Stem. - One or two feet high, clammy above. Leaves. - Opposite, oblong to lance-shaped. Flowers. - Dull purple or partly whitish, showy, in a slender open cluster. Calyx. - Five-parted. Corolla. - Tub...
-Self-Heal. Heal-All - Brunella Vulgaris. Mint.Family (P. 16)
Stems. - Low. Leaves. - Opposite, oblong. Flowers. - Bluish-purple, in a spike or head. Calyx. - Two-lipped, upper lip with three short teeth, the lower two-cleft Corolla. - Two-lipped, the upper lip ...
-Wild Bergamot - Monarda Fistulosa. Mint Family (P. 16)
Two to five feet high. Leaves. - Opposite, fragrant, toothed. Flowers. - Purple or purplish, dotted, growing in a solitary, terminal head. Calyx. - Tubular, elongated, five-toothed. Corolla. - Elongat...
-Day-Flower - Commelina Virginica. Spiderwort Family
Stem. - Slender, branching. Leaves. - Lance-shaped to linear, the floral ones heart-shaped and clasping, folding so as to enclose the flowers. Flowers. - Blue. Calyx. - Of three unequal somewhat color...
-Blue Linaria. Blue Toadflax - Linaria Canadensis. Figwort Family
Stems. - Slender, six to thirty inches high. Leaves. - Linear. Flowers. - Pale blue or purple, small, in a long terminal raceme. Calyx. - Five-parted. Corolla. - Two-lipped, with a slender spur, close...
-Spiderwort - Tradescantia Virginica. Spiderwort Family
Stems. - Mucilaginous, leafy, mostly upright. Leaves. - Linear, keeled. Flowers. - Blue, clustered, with floral leaves as in the day-flower. Calyx. - Of three sepals. Corolla. - Of three petals. Stame...
-Pickerel-Weed - Pontedaria Cordata. Pickerel-Weed Family
Stem. - Stout, usually one-leaved. L.eaves. - Arrow or heart-shaped. Flowers. - Blue, fading quickly, with an unpleasant odor, growing in a dense spike. Perianth. - Two-lipped, the upper lip three-lob...
-Blueweed. Viper's Bugloss - Echium Vulgare. Borage Family
Stem. - Rough, bristly, erect, about two feet high. Leaves. - Alternate, lance-shaped, set close to the stem. Flowers. - Bright blue, spiked on one side of the branches, which are at first rolled up f...
-Nightshade - Solatium Dulcamara. Nightshade Family
Stem. - Usually somewhat climbing or twining. Leaves. - Heart-shaped, the upper halberd-shaped or with ear-like lobes or leaflets at the base. Flowers. - Purple, in small clusters. Calyx. - Five-parte...
-Great Lobelia - Lobelia Syphilitica. Lobelia Family
Stem. - Leafy, somewhat hairy, one to three feet high. Leaves. - Alternate, ovate to lance-shaped, thin, irregularly toothed. Flowers. - Rather large, light blue, spiked. Calyx. - Five-cleft, with a s...
-Indian Tobacco - Lobelia Inflata. Lobelia Family
One to two feet high. Stem. - Branching from the root. Leaves. - Alternate, ovate, or oblong, somewhat toothed. Flowers. - Blue or purple, small, growing in a loose raceme, resembling in structure tho...
-Hog Pea-Nut - Amphicarpoea Monoica. Pulse Family (P. 16)
Stem. - Climbing and twining over plants and shrubs. Leaves. - Divided into three somewhat four-sided leaflets. Flowers. - Papilionaceous, pale lilac, or purplish, in nodding racemes. Pod. - One inch ...
-Beach Pea - Lathyrus Maritimus. Pulse Family (P.16)
About one foot high, or more. Stem. - Stout. Leaves, - Divided into from three to five pairs of thick oblong leaflets. Flowers. - Papilionaceous, large, purple, clustered. Plate XCVII. Beach Pea. -...
-Strophostyles Angulosa. Pulse Family (P.16)
Stems. - Branched, one to six feet long, prostrate or climbing. Leaves. - Divided into three leaflets, which are more or less prominently lobed toward the base, the terminal two-lobed; or some or all ...
-Blue Vetch - Vicia Cracca. Pulse Family (P. 16)
Leaves. - Divided into twenty to twenty-four leaflets, with slender tips. Flowers. - Papilionaceous, blue turning purple, growing in close, many-flowered, one-sided spikes. This is an emigrant from E...
-Chicory. Succory - Cichorium Intybus. Composite Family (P.13)
Stems. - Branching: Leaves. - The lower oblong or lance-shaped, partly clasping, sometimes sharply incised, the floral ones minute. Flower-heads. - Blue, set close to the stem, composed entirely of st...
-Blue And Purple Asters - Aster. Composite Family (P. 13)
Flower-heads. - Composed of blue or purple ray-flowers, with a centre of yellow disk-flowers. As about one hundred and twenty different species of aster are native to the United States, and as fifty-...
-Iron-Weed - Vernonia Noveboracensis. Composite Family (P.13)
Stem. - Leafy, usually tall. Leaves. - Alternate, somewhat lance-oblong. Flower-heads. - An intense red-purple, loosely clustered, composed entirely of tubular flowers. . Along the roadsides and low ...
-Blue Curls. Bastard Pennyroyal - Trichostema Dichotomnm. Mint Family (P.16)
Stem. - Rather low, branching, clammy. Leaves. - Opposite, narrowly oblong or lance-shaped, glutinous, with a balsamic odor. Flowers. - Purple, occasionally pinkish, not usually clustered. Calyx. - Fi...
-Sea Lavender. Marsh Rosemary - Statice Caroliniana. Leadwort Family
Stems. - Leafless, branching. Leaves. - From the root, somewhat oblong, thick. Flowers. - Lavender-color or pale purple, tiny, scattered or loosely spiked along one side of the branches. Calyx. - Dry,...
-Blazing Star - Liatris Scariosa. Composite Family (P. 13)
Stem. - Simple, stout, hoary, two to five feet high. Leaves. - Alternate, narrowly lance-shaped. Flower-heads. - Racemed along the upper part of the stem, composed entirely of tubular flowers of a bea...
-Common Dittany - Cunila Mariana. Mint Family (P.16)
About one foot high. Stem. - Much branched, reddish. Leaves - Opposite, aromatic, dotted, smooth, ovate, rounded or heart-shaped at base, set close to the stem. Flowers. - Small, purple, lilac or whit...
-Closed Gentian - Gentiana Andrewsii. Gentian Family
Stem. - One to two feet high, upright, smooth. Leaves. - Opposite, narrowly oval or lance-shaped. Flowers. - Blue to purple, clustered at the summit of the stem and often in the axils of the leaves. C...
-Five-Flowered Gentian - Gentiana Quinqueflora. Gentian Family
Stem. - Slender, branching, one or two feet high. Leaves. - Opposite, ovate, lance-shaped, partly clasping. Flowers. - Pale blue, smaller than those of the closed gentian, in clusters of about five at...
-Fringed Gentian - Gentiana Crinita. Gentian Family
Stem. - One to two feet high. Leaves. - Opposite, lance-shaped or narrowly oval. Flowers. - Blue, large. Calyx. - Four-cleft, the lobes unequal. Corolla. - Funnel-form, with four fringed, spreading lo...
-Skunk Cabbage. Swamp Cabbage - Symplocarptis Fatidus. Arum Family
Leaves. - Large, becoming one or two feet long; heart-shaped, appearing later than the purple-mottled spathe and hidden flowers. Flowers. - Small and inconspicuous; packed on the fleshy spike which is...
-Wild Ginger - Asarum Canadense. Birth Wort Family
Leaves. - One or two on each plant, kidney or heart-shaped, fuzzy, long-stalked. Flower. - Dull purplish-brown, solitary, close to the ground on a short flower-stalk from the fork of the leaves. Calyx...
-Jack-In-The-Pulpit. Indian Turnip. Arisama Triphyllnm. Arum Family
Scape. - Terminated by a hood-like leaf or spathe. Leaves. - Generally two, each divided into three leaflets. Flowers. - Small and inconspicuous, packed about the lower part of the fleshy spike or spa...
-Alum-Root - Heuchera Americana. Saxifrage Family
Stems. - Two to three feet high, glandular, more or less hairy. Leaves. - Heart-shaped, with short, rounded lobes, wavy-toothed, mostly from the root. Flowers. - Greenish or purplish, in long narrow c...
-Blue Cohosh - Caulophyllum Thalictroides. Barberry Family
Stems. - One to two and a half feet high. Leaf. - Large, divided into many lobed leaflets; often a smaller one at the base of the flower-cluster. Flowers. - Yellowish-green, clustered at the summit of...
-Early Meadow Rue - Thalictrum Dioicum. Crowfoot Family
One to two feet high. Leaves. - Divided into many smooth, lobed, pale, drooping leaflets. Flowers. - Purplish and greenish, unisexual. Calyx. - Of four or five petal-like sepals. Corolla. - None. Stam...
-Lily-Leaved Liparis. - Liparis Liliifolia. Orchis Family (P.17)
Scape. - Low, from a solid bulb. Leaves. - Two, ovate, smooth. Flowers. - Purplish or greenish, with thread-like reflexed petals and a large brown-purplish lip an inch and a half long; growing in a ra...
-Beechdrops. Cancer-Root - Epiphegus Virginiana. Broom-Rape Family
Stems. - Slender, fleshy, branching, with small scales; purplish, yellowish or brownish. L.eaves. - None. Flowers. - Purplish, yellowish or brownish, spiked or racemed, small, of two kinds, the upper ...
-Pine Sap. False Beechdrops - Monotropa Hypopitys. Heath Family
A low fleshy herb without green foliage; tawny, reddish, or whitish. Flowers. - Resembling in structure those of the Indian pipe, but clustered in a raceme. The pine sap is a parasitic plant which is...
-Rattlesnake-Root - Prenanthes Alba
Height. - Two to four feet. Leaves. - The lower cleft or toothed, the uppermost oblong and undivided. Flower-heads. - Nodding, composed of white or greenish strap-shaped flowers surrounded by a purpli...
-Lion's Foot. Gall-Of-The-Earth - Prenanthes Serpentaria. Composite Family (P.13)
Height. - About two feet. Leaves. - Roughish, the lower lobed, the upper oblong lance-shaped. Flower-heads. - Nodding, composed of greenish or cream-colored strap-shaped flowers surrounded by a greeni...
-Wild Bean. Ground-Nut - Apios Tuberosa. Pulse Family (P.16)
Stem. - Twining and climbing over bushes. Leaves. - Divided into three to seven narrowly oval leaflets. Flowers. - Papilionaceous, purplish or chocolate-color, somewhat violet-scented, closely cluster...
-Coral-Root - Corallorhiza Multijlora. Orchis Family (P. 17)
Rootstock. - Much branched, coral-like, toothed. Stem. - Nine to eighteen inches high, without green foliage. Flowers. - Rather small, dull brownish-purple or yellowish, sometimes mottled with red; gr...









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