Hitherto we have been considering plants that have stigmas and ovaries, whether they had or had not a calyx or a corolla; but we must now introduce our patient readers to a cohort of plants which contrive to make an important figure in the world without either calyx, corolla, stigma, or ovary. These plants are generally forest trees, most important as timber producers, but their flowers consist solely of anthers and open carpels containing the ovules, which are fertilized by actual contact with the pollen-grains, instead of through the medium of a stigma and style which have to be pierced by the pollen-tube. This cohort, contains the pines and firs; also the Juniper and the Yew.

Juniper is a dark foliaged evergreen shrub or small tree, usually four or five feet in height, but occasionally attaining a stature of ten, fifteen, or even twenty feet. It occurs on heaths and open hillsides, sometimes in great profusion, as on parts of the North Downs in Surrey and Kent. Its leaves are very narrow, pointed, and borne in threes. Their midribs and margins are thicker than the intermediate portions, and they have a pungent resinous odour. Each anther is borne on a scale, a number of which are formed into a cone, and is four-celled. The female flower consists of five or six scales united at their bases to form a kind of involucre, within which are three naked ovules. The pale yellow pollen is blown into this by the wind, and falls directly upon the ovules. Having become fertile the seeds mature, and the scales develop into a fleshy cone, outwardly resembling a berry, of a blue-black hue with a glaucous bloom upon it. The pollen is shed in May and June, but the fruit is not ripe until the following spring. This is the only British species; its essential oil has long been used as a diuretic and flavouring substance, notably for giving its distinctive flavour to Gin, whose name is derived from Genevrier, the French for Juniper.

Juniper.

Juniper.