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Wayside And Woodland Blossoms | by Edward Step



A pocket guide to British wild-flowers for the country rambler

TitleWayside And Woodland Blossoms
AuthorEdward Step
PublisherFrederick Warne & Co.
Year1909
Copyright1909, Frederick Warne & Co.
AmazonWayside And Woodland Blossoms: A Guide To British Wild-Flowers

By Edward Step, Author Of "By Vocal Woods And' Waters," "By Seashore, Wood And Moorland," Etc With Coloured Figures Of 156 Species Black And White Plates Of 22 Species And Clear Descriptions Of 400 Species

-Preface
The purpose of this volume is to assist a very large and increasing class of persons who possess a strong love of flowers, but to whom the ordinary Floras - indispensable as they are to the scientif...
-The Daisy (Bellis Perennis)
So widely distributed and well known is this plant that surprise may be felt at its inclusion here ; but its perfect familiarity marks it as a capital type of the important natural order to which it b...
-The Cowslip Or Paigle (Primula Veris)
Primula veris. - Primulaceae. no less than forty-two British genera, which are divided into two series. Several of these genera will be illustrated and described in succeeding pages, but in all the fl...
-The Wood Anemone Or Windflower (Anemone Nemorosa)
One of the earliest of spring-flowers to greet us in the copse, by the woodside and in upland meadows is this bright-faced flower. Its firm, fleshy, almost woody rootstock creeps just below the surfac...
-The Sweet Violet (Viola Odorata)
Viola odorata. - Violaceae. There is one other native species :The Pasque-flower (A. Pulsatilla). Blossoms before the leaves mature. Flowers dull purple; exterior covered with silky hairs; leaves also...
-The Lesser Periwinkle (Vinca Minor)
The Lesser Periwinkle is perhaps more familiarly known as a garden plant than as a wild-flower, and the former would appear to be its true character. It is now truly wild, in the Southern English coun...
-The Lesser Celandine (Ranunculus Ficaria). Pilewort
Ranunculus ficaria. - Ranunculaceae. The petals are united for half their length to form a tube, and the five free lobes are oblique. The structure and arrangement of the stamens and pistil are very c...
-The Broom (Cytisus Scoparius)
The Broom is sadly liable to be confounded with the Furze by the non-botanical rambler, chiefly, we believe, because of the similarity of the flowers and the partiality of both for heaths and commons....
-Fumitory (Fumaria Officinalis)
Fumaria officinalis. - Fumariaceae. The flowers, too, are larger than those of the Furze, though similar in structure. The calyx is two-lipped, the petals five, unequal in size and shape. The very lar...
-Lungwort (Pulmonaria Officinalis). Jerusalem Cowslip
Occasionally in woods and copses the rambler will come across this plant, which flowers in April and May. It is not truly a native, but has become naturalized in England and the South of Scotland. Tim...
-Lady's Smock (Cardamine Pratensis). Cuckoo-flower
Cruciferae. Lungwort has a creeping rootstock, from which arise stalked, ovate, hairy leaves, dark green in colour, with white blotches. On the erect flowering stem the leaves are smaller and not stal...
-The Wood Sorrel (Oxalis Acetosella)
One of the most graceful and charming of native plants. It abounds in moist shady woods, rapidly covering the leaf-mould with its fresh yellow-green trefoils and pink-streaked white flowers. In such a...
-The Wallflower (Cheiranthus Cheiri). Wall Gillyflower
Wallflower. Wall Gillyflower. Cheiranthus cheiri. - Cruciferae. This is the only truly native species, but two others with yellow flowers have become naturalized in the S.W. of England. These are:...
-Marsh Marigold (Caltha Palustris)
In marshes and river-meadows in spring this is the most conspicuous plant, and to acquire it the rambler will not hesitate to risk getting wet feet. What time the sallow first puts out her silvery pa...
-Wild Hyacinth, Or Blue-Bell (Scilla Nutans)
Wild Hyacinth. Blue-bell. Scilla nutans. - Liliaceae. The name is derived from the Greek, Kalathos, a cup, in allusion to the form of the flower. After the daisy, buttercup and primrose, few wil...
-The Cuckoo-Pint (Arum Maculatum)
Lords-and-Ladies, Cuckoo-pintle, Priest's-pintle, Calves-foot, Starchwort, Ramp, and Wake-robin are also names by which this very familiar spring-plant is known in different localities. Its appearance...
-Lily Of The Valley (Convallaria Majalis). Solomon's Seal (Polygonatum Multiflorum)
Lily of the Valley. Solomon's Seal. Convallaria majalis. Polygonatum multiflorum. - Liliaceae. Proceeding downwards we first find a ring of abortive stamens, each ending in a long, deflexed hair....
-Hawthorn (Crataegus Oxyacantha)
The Hawthorn, May, or Whitethorn, is too well known to require much description. Its more familiar appearance is as a hedge-forming shrub, when it is not allowed to have any natural form, but in the w...
-Buttercup (Ranunculus Acris)
Buttercup. Ranunculus acris. - Ranunculaceae. May and June are the usual months for flowering, but occasionally it is in blossom at the end of April. Though the characteristic odour from these fl...
-Wall Barley (Hordeum Murinum)
In all waste places on a sandy soil, near towns and villages especially, the Wall Barley, Mouse Barley, Barley-grass, or Way-bent flourishes. At the base of walls is a favourite post for it, where it ...
-Jagged Chickweed (Holosteum Umbellatum)
Jagged Chickweed. Holosteum umbellatum. - Garyophylleae. - This is a very rare plant, occurring only on old walls about Norwich, Bury and Eye. The rambler in those localities might pass it by as ...
-Dandelion (Taraxacum Officinale)
Dandelion. Taraxacum officinale. - Compositae. Hordeum is the old Latin name for barley. Flowers June and July. Everyone thinks he knows the Dandelion when he sees it and probably he does; but of...
-The Bugle (Ajuga Reptans), And The Forget-Me-Not (Myosotis Palustris)
The Common Bugle meets one from April to July in wood and field, and on the waste places by the roadside. It is a creeping plant, runners being sent out from the short stout rootstock, and these rooti...
-The Greater Plantain (Plantago Major), And The Ribwort Plantain (P. Lanceolata)
Ribwort Plantain. Greater Plantain. Plantago lanceolata. Plantago major. These are among the despised of our wild-flowers, weeds among weeds. They are considered of interest only to the keeper of...
-Meadow Sage (Salvia Pratensis)
In speaking of the Bugle on page 22 we promised to say more of Labiate flowers further on. Salvia is a labiate, and of similar construction to Ajuga. S. pratensis is a rare plant, found only in Cornwa...
-Annual Meadow-Grass (Poa Annua), And Cock's-Foot-Grass (Dactylis Glomerata)
Annual Meadow-Grass. Cock'sfoot-grass. Poa annua. Dactylis glomerata. - Gramineae. Most labiate flowers produce honey from the base of the ovary; and this, of course, is a distinct bribe to insec...
-Cat's-Tail, Or Timothy-Grass (Phleum Pratense) And Vernal-Grass (Anthoxanthum Odoratum)
Timothy is one of the most valuable of our grasses, and forms an important portion of the hay crop, from the fact that it is one of the earliest and most abundant species. The inflorescence is a crowd...
-Viper's Bugloss (Echium Vulgare)
Viper's Bugloss. Echiuni vulgare. Our artist has chosen to delineate a specimen of this striking plant that has passed its prime in a flowering sense. To our mind the Viper's Bugloss is prettiest...
-Wild Strawberry (Fragaria Vesca)
Well known as the Wild Strawberry is, the Barren Strawberry (Potentilla fragariastrum) when flowering is often mistaken for it. The general resemblance is fairly close, but a botanist can distinguish ...
-Milkwort (Polygala Vulgaris), And Germander Speedwell (Veronica Chamaedrys)
Milkwort. Polygala vulgaris. - Polygaleae. Germander Speedwell. Veronica chamsedrys. - Scrophularineae. It is a widely distributed species, flowering from April to June, and found on shady banks...
-The Spurge Family (Euphorbia)
Sun Spurge. Cypress Spurge. Euphorbia helioscopia. Euphorbia cyparissias. - Euphorbiaceae. - - Rosaceae. The whole of the British species of Spurge have a singular character, which enables the t...
-Dewberry (Rubus ccesius)
A sub-species of the Blackberry; too well known to require description. Dewberry Rubus ctesius. ...
-Honeysuckle (Lonicera Periclymenum)
The Woodbine or Common Honeysuckle is one of the most familiar of our wild flowers, and as great a favourite as any. It owes its popularity not only to the beauty of its flowers, but also to its stron...
-Dead Nettles (Lamium)
Purple Dead-nettle. Lamium purpureum. - Labiatae. Perfoliate Honeysuckle (L. caprifoliuni) is similar to the last, but the upper pairs of leaves are joined together by their broad bases. The corol...
-Ground Ivy (Nepeta Glechoma), And Ivy-Leaved Toad-Flax (Linaria Cymbalaria)
Trailing among the grass of the copse and hedgebank the Ground Ivy is one of the earliest of flowers to appear in spring. It has not the remotest relationship to the real ivy (Hedera helix), but, like...
-Round-Leaved Crane's-Bill (Geranium Rotundifolium)
Round-leaved Crane's-bill. Geranium rotundifolium. This neat member of a charming family is by no means a common plant; in fact, northward of South Wales and Norfolk it is unknown. Southward it m...
-The Hemlock Stork's-Bill (Erodium Cicutarium)
Closely related to the Crane's bills - and at one time included in the genus Geranium with them - are the Stork's-bills, of which we have three British representatives. Only one of the three, however,...
-Yarrow Or Milfoil (Achillea Millefolium)
Milfoil. Yarrow. Achillea millefolium. - Compositae. The Musky Stork's-bill (E. moschatum) is much larger than the last mentioned Easily identified by the strong smell of musk. Flowers June and Ju...
-Groundsel (Senecio Vulgaris)
We have selected this very vulgar plant as a familiar example of a genus that contains some very striking species. They all produce composite flowers, but in this common weed the ray-florets are usual...
-Rye-Grass (Lolium Perenne), And Upright Brome (Bromus Erectus)
Rye-grass. Brome-grass. Lolium perenne. Bromus erectus. The structure of grass-flowers has been already described, and the reader should refer back to page 19. The inflorescence is a spike, the s...
-Henbane (Hyoscyamus Niger)
At one time the Henbane was held in great esteem as a medicinal plant, and was then to be found very commonly on rubbish heaps, and the banks of ditches. Although it is still retained in the Pharmacop...
-Quake or Totter-grass (Briza media), and Meadow Foxtail (Alopecurus pratensis)
Quake-grass. Foxtail-grass. Briza media. Alopecurus pratensis. - Gramineae. The Totter-grass differs so strongly in appearance from other grasses that minute description is unnecessary except a...
-Bog-Rose (Rosa Canina)
Probably most non-botanical ramblers feel able to distinguish at once between the Dog-rose and the Field-rose, and a few may be learned enough to separate either or both from the Burnet-rose and the ...
-Helianthemum Vulgare. - Clstineae. Rock-Rose (Helianthemum Vulgare)
On our chalk-downs, and on banks in gravelly soils, from June to September the pale yellow flowers of the Rock-rose arc abundant. In spite of its plentifulness, however, it is not among those flowers ...
-Bird's-Foot Trefoil (Lotus Corniculatus)
From June to October our commons, pastures, downs and railway banks are bright with the flowers of Bird's-foot Trefoil, or as it is termed in some districts, Lady's Slipper, a name which properly belo...
-Common Vetch (Vicia Sativa)
The Vetches are Leguminous plants, and the structure of the flowers is therefore very similar to those just described. The Vetches are chiefly climbing plants, and have pinnate leaves. The leaflets ar...
-The Duckweeds (Lemna)
The Duckweeds - Shakespeare's Green mantle of the standing pool - are plants that are well-known to everybody, and consequently very few persons know anything of them. This is a paradox; but they ar...
-Corn Chamomile (Anthemis Arvensis)
We have already described several species of Compositae, and now return to that order to describe a type of flower very similar in general appearance to the Daisy (page 1). The Corn Chamomile is an an...
-St. John's Wort (Hypericum Perforatum)
There are no less than eleven native species of St. John's Wort, all characterized by a neat habit, clean-cut leaves without stalks, yellow flowers in cymose clusters, and a multitude of stamens, whic...
-Clovers (Trifolium)
Everybody knows a Clover when he sees it; it is therefore unnecessary to take up our space with a general description. Their great value as pasture plants has caused their typical forms of flower and ...
-Sain Foin (Onobrychis Sativa)
Still keeping to the Leguminous plants, we have here a handsome herb of aspect very different from that of the Trefoils. It is much cultivated as a fodder plant in dry fields, but will also be found g...
-Eyebright (Euphrasia Officinalis)
From the close-cropped turf of our commons and in meadows the bright eyes of this plant peep out through the summer. In such situations it is a very lowly herb, only an inch or so in height, but in so...
-Great Reed Mace (Typha Latifolia)
Of late years it has become the general error to call this plant Bulrush, a name which belongs by right to Scirpus lacustris. Every autumn the hawkers in London and other cities offer the cylindrical ...
-Kidney Vetch (Anthyllis Vulneraria)
The Kidney-vetch or Lady's fingers was celebrated from early times as a plant that was efficacious in the cure of wounds, and hence its specific name vulneraria. There is no doubt that this reputation...
-Ox-Eye Daisy (Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum)
We have already given several examples of Composite flowers, and an examination of the Ox-eye Daisy would quickly convince the reader that he has another Composite under consideration. The popular eye...
-Pimpernel (Anagallis Arvensis)
The Scarlet Pimpernel, or Poor Man's Weather-glass, is one of those wild flowers with which every country-dweller is acquainted, for it has long enjoyed a reputation as a cheap barometer, in consequen...
-Fennel (Fosnictilum Officinale)
To see the Fennel in its native haunts we must seek the coast where there are cliffs, up whose face we shall find its tall, stout, jointed stems and umbellate flowers. In this plant we make acquaintan...
-The Round-Leaved Sundew (Drosera Rotundifolia)
The Sundews, of which we have three native species, must be sought out, for they seldom obtrude themselves on the attention of those whose eyes have not been trained to see them. They must be looked f...
-Barberry (Berberis Vulgaris)
The Common Barberry is a spiny shrub, growing in hedge and copse, and brightening the spot from April to June with its strings of yellow flowers, and later in the year with its oblong red berries. Its...
-Viola Tricolor. - Violaceae. Wild Pansy (Viola Tricolor)
We have already given the general characters of the Violet family on page 4, where the reader was referred to this page for a notice of the British species other than V. odorata. The present species, ...
-Round-Leaved Mint (Mentha Rotundifolia)
Everybody knows a Mint when he comes upon it, by reason of its pungent odour, well represented by Spear-mint (Mentha viridis), the cultivated herb of kitchen gardens. Spear-mint is held to be only a n...
-Common Comfrey (Symphytum Officinale)
Often in May and June, as we wander by the riverbank or brookside, we shall happen upon this very coarse but striking plant, though its flowers may not be of the hue depicted here; its colour varies f...
-Common Red Poppy (Papaver Rhoeas)
The Poppy is another of those plants concerning which it may be thought that neither illustration nor description is necessary ; but there are poppies and poppies; and though the rambler may gather a ...
-The Greater Stitchwort (Stellria Holostea)
One of the prettiest and most characteristic sights of Spring is the mass of brittle, grass-like stems and leaves of the Greater Stitchwort, crowned by the numerous flowers of gleaming white clear-cut...
-Silverweed (Potentilla Anserina)
The beautiful but too common Silverweed may be taken as a good representative of a genus of Rose-worts that may be conveniently called Cinquefoils, although the leaf of this species has many instead o...
-Small Bindweed (Convolvulus Arvensis)
With the appearance of the delicately fragrant Bindweed in our fields the season for summer flowers may be said to have fairly set in. Its grace of form and colour makes it a general favourite, but it...
-The Greater Celandine (Chelidonium Majus)
We have already described (page 6 ante) a plant bearing the name of Lesser Celandine, and we would at once warn the reader that the Greater Celandine is not even distantly related to the Lesser. Here ...
-Ragged Robin (Lychnis Flos-Cuculi)
Like the Celandines, this plant was known to our fathers as a Cuckoo-flower; in fact, in many parts of the country its name is still Cuckoo-flower, but as that title is also given to the Ladies'-smo...
-Bluebottle Or Cornflower (Centaurea Cyanus)
The Centaureas are closely allied to the thistles, and share with them that hard-headedness which makes the thistle so good a type of the canny Scot. The Bluebottle must not be sought in the company o...
-Round-Leaved Mallow (Malva Rotundifolia)
The Round-leaved or Dwarf Mallow is not so well known as me Common Mallow (M. sylvestris), though it is nearly as common. Its flowers are small, and not nearly so conspicuous as those of sylvestris. L...
-Chicory Or Succory (Cichorium Intybus)
The Wild Chicory is peculiarly a plant of the dry roadside, especially in chalky districts, where it is a striking feature. The rigid erectness of its stems is not pleasing, but the bright, pale-blue ...
-Vernal Wood-Rush (Luzula Vernalis)
The Rushes as a whole (Juncus and Luzula) form a group of plants that is generally despised, except for weaving into mats, and, in other days, for providing wicks for rush-lights. We have in the one g...
-The Greater Dodder (Cuscuta Europaea)
There are two Dodders indigenous to this country, and we have the misfortune to have introduced a third with flax-seed from abroad. The one figured is the Greater Dodder, which is usually found clingi...
-Corn Cockle (Githago Segetum)
Wandering through or round the cornfields any time from June to September we are almost sure to find this beautiful flower. It is first cousin to the Lychnis, already described, and in general structu...
-Purple Medick or Lucerne (Medicago Sativa.)
Though the rambler will find this handsome plant growing apparently wild in the hedgerow and on the borders of fields, he must not too hastily conclude it is a native. The species has been largely gro...
-Yellow Iris Or Flag (Iris Pseudacorus)
Fringing our rivers, ditches and lakes, the Yellow Iris appears to be defending them with drawn sword. Everybody knows the sharp-edged leaves of this species, that may cut the hands of the gatherer if...
-Iris Pseudacorus. - Irideae. Marsh Orchis (Orchis Latifolia)
There are nearly forty British species of Orchideae, divided into sixteen genera ; and in the space at our disposal it is impossible to give anything like an adequate account of the group or of the sp...
-Habenaria Bifolia. - Orchideae. The Butterfly Orchis (Habenaria Bifolia)
This species is very similar in structure and habit to the Marsh Orchis, but the tubers are more cylindrical in shape, the radical leaves almost always restricted to two, the flower-spike lax. Flowers...
-The Bee Orchis (Ophrys Apifera)
In the genus Ophrys we have three species whose flowers bear quite startling likeness to a bee, spider and fly respectively. What is the purpose of this counterfeit presentment it is difficult to conj...
-Erythrsea Centaurium. Gentianeae. Harebell Or Blue-Bell Campanula Rotundifolia)
This is the true Blue-bell of Scotland. As we have indicated (page 14), the Blue-bell of the Southron is the Wild Hyacinth. Scotsmen are very sensitive upon the point of the Hyacinth having so dear a ...
-The Centaury (Erythraea Centaurium)
A very neat and beautiful plant, not nearly so well-known as it should be. It is an annual plant, with erect stem, less than a foot in height, the leaves in pairs growing together at their bases, and ...
-Wild Mignonette (Reseda Lutea), And Weld Or Dyer's-Weed (Reseda Luteola)
So familiar is the Sweet Mignonette of our gardens, and so like and yet unlike are these wild species, that whilst no one would take them for the garden plant one need not be a botanist to see their n...
-Borage (Borago Officinalis)
This is a plant one may find on rubbish heaps and waste ground anywhere near the habitations of man, for it is not, strictly speaking, a native, though thoroughly well-established here. An old adage r...
-Oblong Pond-Weed (Potamogeton Polygonifolius)
We have pond-weeds in abundance, but the Potamogetons are the pond-weeds par excellence. There is scarcely a piece of water in this country, be it river, lake, pond, canal, or intermittently dry ditch...
-Traveller's Joy (Clematis Vitalba)
When rambling, in chalky districts especially, our readers will meet this climbing shrub at every turn, scrambling over all the hedges, flinging its arms out over the way, and clinging persistently to...
-The Self-Heal (Brunella Vulgaris)
A perennial herb of the wayside and the damp pasture, that has fallen upon evil days, so far as reputation is concerned. Time was when it was considered one of the most useful medicines for inward and...
-Goat's Beard (Tragopogon Pratensis)
One of the folk-names of this plant is John-go-to-bed-at-Noon, and I think it is the only example of a British plant name that is a sentence of six words. Three-faces-under-a-hood runs it pretty c...
-Wild Thyme (Thymus Serpyllum)
The Wild Thyme grows on the hills and the high heath lands, usually among fine grasses that are close-cropped by sheep and rabbits; or if on lower ground it will probably be found upon the light and w...
-Ghenopodium Bonus-Henricus. - Chenopodiaceae. Mercury Goosefoot (Chenopodium Bonics-Henricus)
The genus to which this plant belongs consists of thorough weeds. Their habitat is waste places, usually where the soil is made up of man's refuse. The plants are fairly uniform in colour, from stem t...
-Burdock (Arctium Lappa)
The Burdock is a plant well-known to artists and boys; the former being interested in it as a fine foreground plant, the latter on account of its hooked bracts, which make the fruit-head an admirable ...
-Goosegrass Or Cleavers (Galium Aparine)
Although Goosegrass has nothing else in common with Burdock it resembles it in the fact that its fruit sticketh closer than a brother. It is a plant of the hedge, where it forms dense masses, the wh...
-Lychnis Vespertina. - Caryophylleae. White Campion (Lychnis Vespertina)
On page 66 we gave a figure of Lychnis flos-cuculi, and descriptions of that species and L. diurna, the Red Campion. The present species was classed by Linnaeus as a mere variety of L. diurna, the two...
-The Holly (Ilex Aquifolium)
The popular knowledge of the Holly has been gained chiefly about Christmas-tide, when its brightly varnished yet repellent leaves and its brilliant berries are much sought for household decoration. To...
-Brassica Sinapis. - Cruciferae. Charlock Or Wild Mustard (Brassica Sinapis)
An upland cornfield in June with Charlock between the short corn-plants is a beautiful sight for the rambler, but the farmer may be pardoned if he fails to take the aesthetic view; for all that vegeta...
-Common Cow-Wheat (Melampyrum Pratense)
Quite a number of our common plants have been distinguished in popular nomenclature by the prefix cow, and as a general rule it would appear to have been applied in depreciation, as in the parallel ...
-Hippophae Rhamnoides. - Elaeagnaceae. Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae Rhamnoides)
Let us say at once that this plant is in no way related to the Buckthorns, properly so called. It is another example of the readiness with which our fathers seized upon a mere superficial resemblance ...
-Meadow-Sweet (Spircea Ulmaria)
Our first encounter with the Queen of the Meadows, or Meadow-sweet, is an event to be remembered. It will probably be beside a shallow stream, and for a long distance we shall see the continuous line ...
-Leguminosae. Rest-Harrow (Ononis Spinosa)
The Rest-Harrow or Wrest-Harrow is one of those plants whose presence in the pasture is said to indicate its poverty or the neglect of the cultivator. In Sussex and Hampshire it is known as the Cammoc...
-Agrimony (Agrimonia Eupatoria)
One of the prettiest of wayside plants is the golden-starred Agrimony, growing on the waste green flanks of the road and making it beautiful. It is a perennial plant, with a short woody rootstock, and...
-Linum Usitatissimum. Lineae. Common Flax (Linum Usitatissimum)
Occasionally the rambler will find the Flax in cornfields and wastes, by oil-mills and in the neighbourhood of railway stations. Wherever it may be found it is an escape from cultivation. As a truly w...
-Long-Rooted Cat's-Ear (Hypochaeris Radicata)
Cat's-ear is one of those plants that are passed by the rambler as being perplexing hawkweeds which no one but a German botanist understands. It is not exactly a hawkweed, though it comes pretty clo...
-Scabiosa Arvensis. - Dipsaceae. The Field Scabious (Scabiosa Arvensis)
Should any reader who has not previously made a study of botany, but who has followed us thus far, be asked to name the order to which the Scabious belongs, he would almost certainly say the Composita...
-Bitter Sweet (Solanum Dulcamara)
One of the most familiar objects in the hedge is the trailing stem and variously-shaped leaves of the Bitter Sweet or Woody Nightshade; the singular flowers or the red berries attract our attention at...
-Sempervivum Tectorum. - Crassulaceae. Biting Stonecrop (Sedum Acre)
Of the eight British species of Sedum, and the two or three additional kinds that have escaped from gardens and become locally naturalized, this is the best known. Rocks and old walls are its favourit...
-Houseleek (Sempervivum Tectorum)
Although the Houseleek is not a true native of Britain it has been so long established on old walls and the roofs of out-houses that it is quite a familiar object in a country ramble. As its scientifi...
-Yellow Melilot (Meltlotus Officinalis)
Occasionally on roadside wastes, railway banks and similar refuges for the vagabonds of plant-life, especially if it be in the Eastern counties, the rambler comes across a slender plant with loosely t...
-Juniperus Communis. - Coniferae. Juniper (Juniperus Communis)
Hitherto we have been considering plants that have stigmas and ovaries, whether they had or had not a calyx or a corolla; but we must now introduce our patient readers to a cohort of plants which cont...
-Stinging Nettles (Urtica)
Surely, the reader says, we know a nettle when we see it, and certainly know it when we touch it, without needing description or figure. Perhaps so, but the average rambler, for whom this book is prim...
-Gat's Valerian (Valeriana Officinalis)
The Great or Cat's Valerian will come under the notice of the rambler whose way lies by the stream-side, through wet meadows or swampy woods. Where it is found it occurs in abundance, and its pretty f...
-Yellow Toadflax (Linaria Vulgaris)
We have already dealt with one species of Toadflax (see page 33), and although in habit the Ivy-leaved is altogether unlike the Yellow Toadflax, their flowers will be found to have the same structure,...
-Nuphar Luteum. - Nympheaceae. Yellow Water-Lily (Nuphar Luteum)
In some districts, where the Yellow Water-lily floats on the bosom of ponds and sluggish streams, it is known as the Brandy-bottle, partly by reason of its unpleasant odour and partly on account of it...
-Wild Teasel (Dipsacus Sylvestris)
We have explained (page 98) in what respect the Scabious differs from the somewhat similar flowers of Compositae, and to a considerable extent that explanation will hold good for the genus Dipsacus, w...
-Tanacetum Vulgare. - Compositae. Common Tansy (Tanacetum Vulgare)
Time was when every cottage garden and every kitchen garden had its clump of Tansy, for it was a valued item in the housewife's pharmacopoeia, and was all but invaluable in cookery. A belief is entert...
-Blackthorn, Or Sloe (Prunus Communis)
It seems quite natural to use the two common names of this beautiful shrub at different times. In the spring, before a leaf has unrolled upon the spine-tipped spurs of its soot-coloured branches, we c...
-Humulus Lupulus. - Urticaceae. Wild Hop (Humulus Lupulus)
The Wild Hop may not unfrequently be seen in the copse and hedgerow, especially in the South of England. It has a thick branching perennial rootstock - in the cultivated plant called a set - from wh...
-The Salad Burnet (Poterium Sanguisorba)
When cool tankards were more generally compounded than they are to-day, Salad Burnet was a better-known plant, for, like Borage, it formed one of the ingredients. It was used also in the salad bowl,...
-Hedera Helix. - Araliaceae. Ivy (Hedera Helix)
How common is Ivy, whether wild or cultivated! Yet how few are acquainted with its flowers! There is no occasion to say that the Ivy is an evergreen perennial climbing shrub, nor to describe the form...
-Arrowhead (Sagittaria Sagittifolia)
One of the most striking among the many forms of leaves that go to make up the vegetation of the sluggish stream or the canal is the aptly-named plant here figured. It is a perennial, the leaves are ...
-Sonchus Arvensis. - Compositae. The Corn Sow-Thistle (Sonchus Arvensis)
We were nearly remarking that the Sow-thistle is one of the most beautiful of our native flowers, but remembering that we have already applied that observation to several species, we will alter the fo...
-Grass Of Parnassus (Pamassia Palustris)
It is a singular thing that some of our most beautiful plants grow in the most unpleasant places. We remember a backwater of the River Thames that used to receive the waste waters from a large soap-wo...
-Oat-Grass (Avena Sativa)
We have three British species of Wild Oat, but a knowledge of their structure and differences may be best obtained perhaps by a consideration of the cultivated Oat of our fields. It is indeed probable...
-Mountain Ash Or Rowan (Pyrus Aucuparia)
We have considered many members of the beautiful Rose family already, but we have now a representative of another branch of it - the Wild-Apple section. The fruit of the Mountain Ash is really a littl...
-Polygonum Fagopyrum. - Polygoneae. Buckwheat (Polygonum Fagopyrum)
In the neighbourhood of manure-heaps and on the borders of cultivated ground one may come across this plant, which was formerly included in the British Flora, but is now known to be a mere waif of cul...
-Fool's Parsley (Aethusa Cynapium)
Fool's Parsley is fond of cultivated ground, and it is no unusual thing for it to make its appearance in the very garden beds that have been set apart for rearing that pot-herb for which fools are sai...
-Erica Cinerea. Calluna Vulgaris. - Ericaceae. Fine-Leaved Heath (Erica Cinerea)
This is the common Purple Heath of our elevated heaths and commons, distinguished from its relatives by its smooth stems and leaves; the latter exceedingly narrow, their edges curled under, and arrang...
-Mistleto (Viscum Album)
Is there a person in these islands above the age of infancy who does not know the Mistleto by sight? Why, then, let it occupy space here? Because it is one of those very well-known things that we only...
-Meadow-Saffron (Colchicum Autumnale)
Colchicum autumnale. - Liliaceae. This leathery parasite is not very particular as to its host. Quite a large number of trees of different species harbour it, notably the apple; next in favour are pop...
-Hart's-Tongue Fern (Scolopendrium Vulgare)
Hitherto we have dealt only with flowering plants. In these sexual organs are borne in more or less conspicuous blossoms, and, as the result of fertilization of the ovules by the pollen, seeds are pro...
-Male Fern (Nephrodium Filix-Mas)
In the Male-fern - so-called by our fathers owing to its robust habit as compared with the tender grace of one they called Lady-fern (Asplenium filix-faemina) - we have an advance in the intricacy of ...
-Field Horsetail (Equisetum Arvense)
The Horsetails are a small group of flowerless plants, quite distinct from the ferns, though there are certain points in which some resemblance may be traced. We have eight British species out of twen...
-Lichens (Lichenes). Plate 126
The rambler will meet with specimens of the Lichen tribes at every turn, when he has got fairly away from the smoke of towns. He will find them on the tree-trunks or rocks and walls, old posts and pal...
-Lycoperdum gemmatum. Gantharellus cibarius
- Fungi. The species are very numerous, but their identification is not easy, and requires serious application. The two figured are exceedingly common in some districts. Various species of Cup-moss (C...
-Mosses (Musci). Three-Cornered Hypnum (Hypnum Triquetrum). Hair-Moss (Polytrichum Formosum)
Another important tribe of flowerless plants, to which we must be content with merely giving the general characters, for in a volume primarily intended as a guide to \wild-flowers we must not occupy t...
-Mushrooms And Toadstools (Fungi)
We cannot pretend to do other than call the rambler's attention to the interesting plants that are variously called mushrooms or toadstools, according to whether they are of the two or three species c...
-Small-Leaved Lime (Tilia Parvifolia)
Several species of Lime may be met in woods and plantations, but respecting the right of each to be called indigenous there is a good deal of difference of opinion among authorities. Some say the pres...
-Tree Of The Gods (Ailantus Glandulosa)
This elegant shade-tree was introduced from North China in 1751, and brought its name with it - Ailanto, or Tree of the Gods. It has, however, been better appreciated in France and Italy than in this ...
-Tilia Parvifolia. - Tlllaceae. Maples (Acer)
Our English Maple is the Common or Small-leaved or Field Maple (Acer campestre) that grows wild in hedgerows and thickets in England and Wales, but is only naturalized in Scotland. It is a small sprea...
-The False Acacia (Robina Psendacacia)
The False Acacia, Common Acacia, Robinia, or Locust-tree, as it is variously styled, is a native of mountain forests in North America, attaining its greatest perfection in Kentucky and Tennessee, wher...
-The Ash (Fraxinus Excelsior)
One of the most pleasing in growth of our forest trees is the Ash, its grey trunk rising to eighty or a hundred feet, and its sweeping branches, the lower ones bending upwards at the tips, clothed wit...
-Robinia Pseudacacia. - Leguminosae. The Black Mulberry (Morus Nigra)
It may surprise some of our readers to learn that the Mulberry-tree is not a native, though it is a familiar object in old gardens and parks. It is generally stated that the first Mulberry-trees were ...
-The Small-Leaved Elm (Ulmus Campestris)
The Elm is one of our commonest trees, yet a great amount of uncertainty appears to prevail in the popular mind in identifying the Common or Small-leaved from our second British species, the variously...
-Moras Nigra. - Arctocarpeae. The Beech (Fagus Sylvatica)
A Beech-tree growing on a chalky hill is one of the most beautiful of forest trees. It is, moreover, a tree that has left its marks upon our topography and literature, for many place-names (such as Bu...
-Sweet Chestnut (Castanea Vulgaris)
On light sandy soils, where little else but fir and heath will grow, one may meet with considerable plantations of the Sweet or Spanish Chestnut. For centuries, and until quite recently, it was consid...
-The Oak (Quercus Robur)
First and foremost in any list of British trees should come the Oak, in utter disregard of all botanical classification, for not only was our supremacy of the sea and our existence as a nation gained ...
-Hazel (Corylus Avellana)
The Hazel is one of the most look-ahead kind of trees, for almost before this year's nuts have all dropped off, or been picked off, she puts out the tiny, cylindric grey bodies that continue to length...
-The Hornbeam (Carpinns Betulus)
It is in our experience that though many townsmen think they know the Beech there are comparatively few of them that cannot be deceived into accepting the Hornbeam as Fagns sylvatica. It must be admit...
-Carpinus Betulus. - Cupuliferae. The Osier (Salix Viminalis)
The Willow family, to which the Osier belongs, is, like the Brambles, a difficult group even for the botanist, and he is a bold man or a very clever one who undertakes to identify specimens off-hand. ...
-Salix Viminalis. - Salicineae. The Lombardy Poplar (Populus Fastigiata)
It is an easy step from the Willows to the Poplars, for the Genus Salix and the Genus Populus together form the Order Salicineae. We have only two indigenous species in Britain - the White Poplar or A...
-The Oriental Plane (Platanus Orientalis)
One need not go far into the country in order to see the Plane. Its virtue as a smoke-proof tree has now been well tested by the governing authorities in large towns, and it is freely planted in recre...
-The Birch (Betula Alba)
The most graceful of our native trees is the White or Silver Birch. It is the very antipodes among trees of the solid unbending oak. The slim stem, scarcely ever a foot in diameter, tapers away almost...
-The Alder (Alnus Glutinosa)
The Alder, of which we have but one species, is own cousin to the Birch, but we must not seek it in similar situations. The Birch loves the breezy hillside, the Alder prefers the swampy valley, the po...
-Scotch-Fir Or Pine (Pinus Sylvestris)
This, the Juniper, and the Yew are the only coniferous trees we have in Britain. Pinus sylvestris is therefore our only Pine, yet people persist in calling it a Fir, a name more especially belonging t...
-The Cluster Pine Or Pinaster (P. Pinaster)
This is not a native of Britain, though it has been grown here for about three hundred years. Its home is in the countries bordering the Mediterranean, chiefly in low ground near the sea. It is a larg...
-Pinus Pinaster. - Coniferae. The Silver-Fir (Abies Petinata)
Here we have a true fir, which will be seen on examination to differ in several points from the pines. It will at once be noted that the leaves are not gathered into bundles of two, three, or five, bu...
-The Norway Spruce-Fir (Abies Excelsa)
The Spruce-fir is a handsome tree, often reaching from one hundred to one hundred and fifty feet in height. The leaves are curiously square, sharp-pointed and scattered in their arrangement on the bra...
-Abies Excelsa. - Coniferae. The Larch (Larix Europaea)
So frequently do we come across huge plantations of Larch that we might be pardoned for supposing it to be a native tree; but though it was introduced to Britain as an ornamental tree about two hundre...
-Natural Orders, Genera And Species
Ilhistrated or Described in the foregoing pages. Order I. - Ranunculaceae. Genus I. - Clematis Vitalba, 82 Genus III. - Anemone nemorosa, 3; Pulsatilla, 4 Genus V. - Ranunculus acris, 18 ; bulbosu...
-Natural Orders, Genera And Species. Continued
Order XLVI. - Primulaceae. Genus I. - Primula vulgaris, 3 ; elatior, 3 ; vcris, 2 ; farinosa, 3 ; scotic a, 3 Genus VI. - ^4 NA Gallis arvensis, 54; leuclla, 54 Genus 11. - Eraxinus excelsior, Ord...
-A Standard Work On British Wild Flowers
In four vols., royal Svo, cloth gilt, gilt top, 3. The Flowering Plants, Grasses, Sedges And Ferns Of Great Britain, and their Allies, the Club-Mosses, Pepperworts and Horsetails. By Anne Pratt. New...









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