This genus has brown spores, and no volva at the base of the stem. The veil remains as a fringe attached to the margin of the pileus, but is not always apparent in old specimens; no portion remains as a ring on the stem. The gills are attached or grown fast to the stem at their inner extremity. In this respect, and also in having the stem destitute of a collar, the genus differs from the genus Agaricus.

Perplexing Hypholoma (Harmless)

Hypholoma perplexum

Cap or Pileus - Convex or nearly plane, smooth, sometimes slightly umbonate. Reddish or brownish red, fading to yellow on the margins.

Stem or Stipe - Firm and hollow, slightly covered with fine threads. Whitish or yellowish to rusty red or red brown. 2-3 inches long.

Veil or Ring - Veil remains attached to the margin. No ring on the stem.

Gills or Lamella-Thin, crowded, slightly rounded at the stem end. At first pale yellow, then tinged with green or purplish brown.

Spores - Purplish brown, elliptical.

Flesh - Mild, not clearly bitter, white.

Time - Autumn to freezing weather.

Habitat - Grows in clusters, sometimes singly, on stumps, in the woods or in the open.

Six allied species of Hypholoma may be readily distinguished by reference to the table.

Hy-pho-lo'-ma Per-plex'-um

Perplexing Hypholoma (harmless). (Hypholoma perplexum, Pk.).

Perplexing Hypholoma (harmless). (Hypholoma perplexum, Pk.).

Brown-spored Series

Section of H. perplexum

Section of H. perplexum.

I - Taste Mild Or Not Clearly Bitter

H. epixanthus

Gray-gilled Mushroom

H. capnoides

H. perplexum

Perplexing- Mushroom

Gills - Yellow, becoming grey; neither green nor purplish.

Gills - Grey to purple-brown.

Gills - Yellow, green, or purple brown.

Cap - Yellow or slightly tawny on disk only.

Cap - Yellow or slightly tawny on the disk only.

Cap - Brick red, yellow on the margin.

Taste - Mild.

Taste - Mild.

Taste - Mild or not clearly bitter.

Regarded as edible.

E-pl-xan'-thus Cip-noi'-des

II - Taste Bitter

H. elaeodes

H. fasciculare Tufted Yellow Mushroom

H. sublaterltium Brick-red Mushroom

Gills - Green to olive.

Gills - Ye1low to green.

Gills,-_whitish to sooty olive.

Cap - Brick red.

Cap - Yellow tinged with tawny.

Cap - Brick red.

Stem - Hollow, rusty.

Stem - Hollow, yellow.

Stem - Solid or stuffed.

Flesh - Yellow.

Flesh - Yellow.

Flesh - Whitish.

Taste - Bitter.

Taste - Bitter.

Taste - Bitter.

Reputed poisonous.

Reputed poisonous and edible.

Uncertain Hypholoma (Edible)

Hypholoma incertum

Cap or Pileus - Thin, fragile, whitish. Margin often wavy and adorned with the fragments of the woolly white veil.

Opaque when dry, transparent when moist.

Ovate at first, then broadly spreading. 1-2 1/2 inches wide. Gills or Lamella Thin, narrow, close; fastened to the stem at their inner extremity.

White at first, then purplish brown.

Section of H. incertum

Section of H. incertum.

II Taste Bitter 232Uncertain Hypholoma (edible). (Hypholoma incertum, Pk.).

Uncertain Hypholoma (edible). (Hypholoma incertum, Pk.).

Brick Top (Edible)

Brick Top (Edible).

(Hypholoma sublateritium, Schaeff.)

Reduced. Nat. size: Cap diam.,4 inches; stem length, 4 Inches

Brown-spored Series

Stem or Stipe - Hollow, white, and slender. 1-3 inches long.

Spores - Purplish brown, elliptical.

Flesh - Tender.

Time - Throughout a moist season.

Habitat - In clusters, in lawns, gardens, thin woods, and pastures.

Brick Top (Edible)

Hypholoma sublateritium

Cap or Pileus - Brick red, with pale yellowish border. Surface covered with fine silky fibres. Fleshy, firm, moist. 2 1/2-4 inches broad. Stem or Stipe - Creamy when young, lower part slightly tinged with red. Hollow or stuffed. Silky fibres on the surface. 2 1/2-4 inches long.

Gills or Lamellae - Creamy when young, olive when old. Attached to stem at innerextrem-ity. Rather narrow, crowded, unequal.

Ring or Annulus - None. Remnants of veil often seen on edge of cap.

Spores - Brown.

Flesh - Creamy, firm, bitter.

Time - September.

Ha b it at - The specimen photographed grew in clus-t e r s on a mossy stump in the open.

Section of H. sublateritium

Section of H. sublateritium.

Genus Stropharia

There are about seven species of this genus in America. The spores are brown, there is no volva, the stem has a collar, and the lamellae are united with the stem. They have no special economic importance.

Genus Psathyra

Two American species are reported for this genus. The spores are dark brown, there is no volva, the veil is inconspicuous or wanting, and the lamellae attached to the stem or notched at the inner extremity. The margin of the cap in the young plant and mature plant is always straight.

Genus Psilocybe

Eleven American species are reported for this genus. The spores are dark brown. There is no volva, the veil is inconspicuous or wanting, and the lamellae are attached to the stem or notched at the inner extremity. In the young plant the cap curves in at the margin.

Genus Pilosace

This genus has but one American species recorded. The spores are dark brown. There is no volva, and the veil is inconspicuous or wanting. The lamellae are free from the stem.

Genus Deconica

But one American species is reported. This has dark brown spores, and the lamellae growing down on the stem. The veil is inconspicuous or wanting, and there is no volva.

Stroph-a'-ri-a Psa-thy'-ra Psl-lo-cy.be

Pl-lo-sa-ce De-con'-I-ca

Genus Chitonia

One American species is reported in this genus, Clarkeinde plana, from Nebraska. The spores are brown, and the stem has a volva at the base, but no ring.