Deciduous shrubs or small trees. Twigs slender, round;pith moderate, round, continuous or porous. Buds usually solitary, stalked or sessile, typically oblong. Leaf-scars usually opposite, crescent-shaped, commonly raised on petiole bases; bundle-traces 3; stipule-scars lacking, but the leaf-scars often meet or are joined by transverse lines which may resemble stipule-scars on cursory examination.

Fig. 231. Cornus canadensis

Fig. 231. Cornus canadensis.

Fig. 232. Cornus florida

Fig. 232. Cornus florida.

a.

Low subshrub, 9-22 cm. high

1.

C. canadensis

a.

Taller shrubs or trees

b. Leaf-scars opposite

c. Leaf-scars during the first winter on the ends of petiole-bases covering the leaf-buds; flower-buds biscuit-shaped

2.

C. florida

c. Leaf-buds not concealed by petiole-bases

d. Cyme-vestiges corymbose

e. Pith of 1-2-year old branchlets white

f. Branchlets red or brown, some of them prostrate and rooting at the tips (stoloniferous)

3.

C. stolonifera

f. Branchlets greenish, becoming pink in winter

4.

C. rugosa

e. Pith of 1-2-year old twigs brown or drab (rarely white in C. drummondii)

f. Branchlets gray

5.

C. drummondii

f. Branchlets red or purplish

g. Leaves broadly rounded at base

6.

C. amomum

g. Leaves tapered at base

7.

C. obliqua

d. Cyme-vestiges paniculate (not racemose, as the Latin name indicates)

8.

C. racemosa

b.

Leaf-scars alternate (but crowded near the ends of the twigs, appearing as if whorled)

9.

C. alternifolia

1. _C_. canadensis L. Dwarf Cornel. Bunchberry. Almost herbaceous, but woody at the base; flowering stem from a nearly horizontal rootstock, erect, 9-22 cm. high; drupes red, globular, present in winter. Woods and openings, Greenland to Alaska, south to West Virginia, Illinois, Minnesota, South Dakota, New Mexico, and California (Fig. 231).

2. C. florida L. Flowering Dogwood. A shrub or small tree up to 12 m. high with grayish-brown "alligator" bark; twigs green or purple, glabrous; drupes ellipsoid, 1 cm. long, red (rarely yellow), persistent in winter. Acid woods, Florida to Texas and Mexico, north to Maine, Ontario, Missouri, and Kansas (Fig. 232).

3. C. stolonifera Michx. Red-Osier Dogwood. Erect shrub to 2.5 m. high, with some prostrate stoloniferous stems; branching loose and osier-like; twigs dark blood-red, glabrescent; pith white. Thickets, Newfoundland to Yukon, south to West Virginia, Iowa, Nebraska, New Mexico, Arizona, and California (Fig. 233).

4. C. rugosa Lam. Round-leaf Dogwood. (C. circinata L'Her.). Shrub 2-3 m. high, the branching rather loose;' twigs green, becoming rather pink, bearing closely appressed pubescence;pith white; buds nearly sessile, hairy at the tip. Dry woods, Quebec to Manitoba, south to West Virginia, Illinois, and Iowa (Fig. 234).

5. C. drummondii Meyer. Roughleaf Dogwood. (C. asperi-folia Michx.). Upright shrub or small tree up to 5 m. high; branches gray, the young twigs reddish or purplish;pith slender,brown (rarely white). Shores, Mississippi to Texas, north to Ontario, Iowa, and Nebraska.

Fig. 233. Cornus stolonifera

Fig. 233. Cornus stolonifera.

Fig. 234. Cornus rugosa

Fig. 234. Cornus rugosa.

Fig. 235. Cornus amomum

Fig. 235. Cornus amomum.

Fig. 236. Cornus obliqua

Fig. 236. Cornus obliqua.

Fig. 237. Cornus racemosa

Fig. 237. Cornus racemosa.

Fig. 238. Cornus alrernifolia

Fig. 238. Cornus alrernifolia.

6. C. amomum Mill. Silky Cornel. Kinnikinnik. A shrub 1-3 m. high, with loose branching; not stoloniferous, although the lower branches may bend downwards and root in wet soil; twigs green, becoming purplish, bearing silky-downy or rusty pubescence; pith brown; buds nearly sessile. Damp thickets, Maine to Indiana, south to Georgia and Alabama (Fig. 235).

7. C. obliqua Raf. Silky Dogwood. Shrub or small tree to 3 m. high; branchlets purple or yellowish red. Damp thickets, New Brunswick to North Dakota, south to Kentucky, Arkansas and Oklahoma (Fig. 236).

8. C. racemosa Lam. Panicled Dogwood. (C. paniculata L'Her.). A shrub 2-5 m. high, with smooth light gray bark; twigs gray, glabrous; pith sometimes white but generally brownish, especially in 2-year-old branchlets. Dry soil, Maine to Ontario and Minnesota, south to Kentucky, Missouri, and Oklahoma (Fig. 237.).

9. C. alternifolia L. f. Alternate-leaf Dogwood. Shrub or small tree to 8 m. high, the branches spreading in irregular whorls to form horizontal tiers; branchlets glabrous, greenish; leaf-scars alternate, but crowded. Dry woods, Newfoundland to Ontario and Minnesota, south to Georgia, Alabama, and Missouri (Fig. 238).