Deciduous trees with scaly bark. Twigs slender, zigzag, terete; pith small, pale green, round or somewhat angled, continuous. Buds usually solitary, sessile, ovoid, oblique, with about 6 spirally arranged scales, striped with faint longitudinal grooves; terminal bud absent. Leaf-scars alternate, crescent-shaped or elliptical, small; bundle-traces 3; stipule-scars unequal.
Fig. 51. Ostrya virginiana.
1. O. virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch.Hop Hornbeam. Ironwood. A slender tree up to 20 m. high, the trunk 6 dm. or less in diameter, with very hard wood and brownish furrowed bark; twigs pubescent; staminate catkins sessile at ends of twigs of the preceding season; pistillate catkins small, terminal, erect, the flowers subtended by a tubular bract which in fruit becomes a closed bladdery bag 12-15 mm. long; ripe pistillate catkins resemble hops, whence the common name. Rich woods, Nova Scotia to Manitoba and South Dakota, south to Florida and Texas (Fig. 51).