The Identification Of Woody Plants In Winter has attracted the attention of students of botany for many years. While at first glance trees and shrubs may seem remarkably alike in their dormant condition it is soon discovered that many of their winter characters provide just as satisfactory criteria for recognition as do the characters exhibited during the growing season.

This manual is the outgrowth of many years of teaching by the authors during which time several editions of a winter manual were prepared and used in classes. The present treatment embodies improvements which have resulted from actual use in taxonomy classes over the years.

The area covered by this manual is, in general, the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada. The limits might be indicated as the southern boundaries of Virginia and Kentucky, the western boundaries of Missouri and Iowa, and the 49th parallel of latitude through Quebec and Ontario to the northwestern corner of Minnesota. In general, ranges are stated from east to west across the north, then to the south. However, in the case of some distinctly southern plants having the principal portion of their range south of this area the opposite practice has been followed. No attempt has been made to include all woody plants of the area, but most of the important species of the various regions are treated. Introduced plants are included if they are likely to occur spontaneously.

The Latin names, in general, conform to those used in Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th Edition. Other names that have been in frequent use by various authors are included in parenthesis.

Most of the pen-and-ink drawings have been made by Nelle P. Ammons, some of them having appeared in previous works by the present authors. The sketches in the opening chapter were made by Dr. William A. Lunk of the University of Michigan.

The writers acknowledge indebtedness to numerous individuals and institutions for assistance in the preparation of this work. Particular gratitude is expressed to the staff of the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University for their kindness in furnishing material for study. Appreciation is also extended to Dr. P. D. Straus-baugh, Professor Emeritus of Botany, West Virginia University for his helpful suggestions. The cover photograph,of trees in winter, was made by Dr. John A. Gibson, Professor of Chemistry, West Virginia University.

THE AUTHORS

June, 1958