Deciduous soft-wooded shrubs or exceptionally small trees. Twigs more or less angled, thick; lenticels very conspicuous; pith very large, soft, continuous. Buds solitary or multiple; terminal bud mostly lacking. Leaf-scars opposite, broadly crescent-shaped or triangular, large, more or less connected by lines.

Fig. 311. Sambucus canadensis

Fig. 311. Sambucus canadensis.

Fig. 312. Sambucus pubens

Fig. 312. Sambucus pubens.


Pith white


S. canadensis


Pith brown


S. pubens

1. S.. canadensis L. Common Elderberry. Black Elderberry. A stoloniferous shrub to 4 m. high, with pale yellowish-gray twigs. Damp rich soil, Nova Scotia to Manitoba, south to Georgia, Louisiana, and Oklahoma (Fig. 311 ).

2. S. pubens Michx. Red Elderberry. (S. racemosa of authors, not L.). Shrub to 4 m. tall, with light brown twigs. Rocky woods, Newfoundland to Alaska, south to Georgia, Ohio, Iowa, South Dakota, Colorado, and Oregon (Fig. 312 ).