Deciduous shrubs or small trees. Twigs moderate, slender, obscurely 6-sided; pith moderate, continuous. Buds solitary or superposed, mostly stalked, ovoid or oblong. Leaf-scars opposite, crescent-shaped or broad, often meeting or connected by lines; bundle-traces 3; stipule-scars none. Drupes present in winter.
Fig. 301. Viburnum alnifolium.
Fig. 302. Viburnum cassinoides.
Fig. 303. Viburnum nudum.
Fig. 304. Viburnum lentago.
Leaf-scars quite broad; twigs purple, stellate-scurfy
Leaf-scars narrow; twigs brown or gray
b. Bud-scales 2, closely valvate
c. Buds ovoid-globose, green
. V. trilobum
c. Buds oblong, brown-scurfy or lead-colored
d. Branches numerous, often short and rigidly spreading
d. Branches elongate, fewer, flexuous
e. Buds smooth, lead-colored e. Buds brown, scurfy
f. Twigs dull
f. Twigs glossy
b. Bud-scales more than 2, the lower pair mostly short
c. Twigs not stellate-pubescent
d. Bud-scales 4,buds appressed
e. Lower bud-scales very short; twigs pubescent
e. Lower scales often half as long as the bud; twigs glabrous
Fig. 305. Viburnum prunifolium.
Fig. 306. Viburnum rafinesquianum.
Fig. 307. Viburnum dentarum.
Fig. 308. Viburnum recognirum.
Fig. 309. Viburnum acerifolium.
Fig. 310. Viburnum trilobum.
d. Bud-scales often 6, buds divergent, plump
Young twigs densely stellate-pubescent, becoming glabrate
1. V. alnifolium Marsh. Hobblebush. Straggling shrub to 3 m. high, with forked branches, often procumbent and rooting, so as to trip pedestrians (whence the common name); twigs scurfy-pubescent. Cool woods, Prince Edward Island to Ontario, south in the mountains to Georgia and Tennessee (Fig. 301 ).
2. V. cassinoides L. Wild Raisin. Upright shrub 1-4 m. high, or sometimes taller; twigs dull, scurfy, elongated, flexuous; buds covered by a single pair of yellow or golden scurfy scales; drupes blue-black, 6-9 mm. long. Thickets, Newfoundland to Ontario, south to Wisconsin, Indiana, and in the mountains to Alabama (Fig. 302 ).
3. V. nudum L. Smooth Witherod. Swamp-Haw. Upright shrub or small tree to 6 m. high, and 1-2 dm. in diameter, with slightly scurfy, rather glossy, elongated, flexuous twigs; buds brown or fuscous. Swamps, Florida to Texas, north to Connecticut and Kentucky; mostly in the coastal plain or Mississippi Valley (Fig. 303 ).
4. V. lentago L. Sheepberry. Nannyberry. A shrub or small tree to 10 m. high, with slender branches, slightly scurfy twigs, and gray buds, the terminal long-pointed; drupes blue-black, 0. 8-1. 5 cm. long, with sweet pulp. Stream-banks, Quebec to Manitoba and South Dakota, south to Georgia, Missouri, and Colorado (Fig. 304 ).
5. V. prunifolium L. Black Haw. Large shrub or small tree to 8 m. high; bark blackish, broken into squarish blocks; branches numerous, rigid, spreading; buds short-pointed, reddish, pubescent; twigs glabrous; drupes blue-black, about 1 cm. long. Thickets, Florida to Texas, north to Connecticut, Michigan, Iowa, and Kansas (Fig. 305 ).
6. V. rafinesquianum Schultes.Downy Arrowwood. (V. pubes-cens of authors, not (Ait.) Pursh). Loose straggling or dense shrub up to 2 m. high; buds with 2 pairs of outer scales; branch-lets glabrous, pale; fruit dark purple, ellipsoid, 7-9 mm. broad. Dry slopes, Quebec to Manitoba, south to Georgia, Kentucky, and Arkansas (Fig. 306 ).
7. V. dentatum L. Southern Arrowwood. (V. scabrellum (T. and G.) Chapm.). Shrub 1-3 m. high, with close gray bark; young branchlets often densely pubescent, sometimes glabrate; drupes blue-black, ellipsoid-ovoid, 5-10 mm. long. Sandy thickets, Florida to Texas, north to Massachusetts, West Virginia, Tennessee, and Missouri (Fig. 307 ).
8. V. recognitum Fernald.Smooth Arrowwood. (V. dentatum of authors, not L.). Shrub 1-3 m. high; branchlets glabrous. Damp thickets, New Brunswick to Ontario, south to South Carolina, Ohio, and Michigan (Fig. 308 ).
9. V. acerifolium L. Mapleleaf Arrowwood. Dockmackie. Upright shrub to 2 m. high,with pubescent twigs; buds stalked,ap-pressed, with 4 scales; drupes ellipsoid, purple-black. Rocky woods, Quebec to Minnesota, south to Georgia and Tennessee (Fig. 309 ).
10. V. trilobum Marsh. Cranberry-tree. (V. opulus L. var. americanum Ait.). A nearly smooth upright shrub, 1-4 m. high, with gray bark; twigs glabrous; buds with 2 connate outer scales; drupe orange to red, subglobose to ellipsoid, juicy. Cool woods, Newfoundland to British Columbia, south to West Virginia, Indiana, Iowa, South Dakota, Wyoming, and Washington (Fig. 310 ).