Deciduous shrubs or small trees. Twigs moderate, slender, obscurely 6-sided; pith moderate, continuous. Buds solitary or superposed, mostly stalked, ovoid or oblong. Leaf-scars opposite, crescent-shaped or broad, often meeting or connected by lines; bundle-traces 3; stipule-scars none. Drupes present in winter.

Fig. 301. Viburnum alnifolium

Fig. 301. Viburnum alnifolium.

Fig. 302. Viburnum cassinoides

Fig. 302. Viburnum cassinoides.

Fig. 303. Viburnum nudum

Fig. 303. Viburnum nudum.

Fig. 304. Viburnum lentago

Fig. 304. Viburnum lentago.


Leaf-scars quite broad; twigs purple, stellate-scurfy


V. alnifolium


Leaf-scars narrow; twigs brown or gray

b. Bud-scales 2, closely valvate

c. Buds ovoid-globose, green


. V. trilobum

c. Buds oblong, brown-scurfy or lead-colored

d. Branches numerous, often short and rigidly spreading


V. prunifolium

d. Branches elongate, fewer, flexuous

e. Buds smooth, lead-colored e. Buds brown, scurfy



f. Twigs dull


V. cassinoides

f. Twigs glossy


V. nudum

b. Bud-scales more than 2, the lower pair mostly short

c. Twigs not stellate-pubescent

d. Bud-scales 4,buds appressed

e. Lower bud-scales very short; twigs pubescent


V. acerifolium

e. Lower scales often half as long as the bud; twigs glabrous


V. recognitum

Fig. 305. Viburnum prunifolium

Fig. 305. Viburnum prunifolium.

Fig. 306. Viburnum rafinesquianum

Fig. 306. Viburnum rafinesquianum.

Fig. 307. Viburnum dentarum

Fig. 307. Viburnum dentarum.

Fig. 308. Viburnum recognirum

Fig. 308. Viburnum recognirum.

Fig. 309. Viburnum acerifolium

Fig. 309. Viburnum acerifolium.

Fig. 310. Viburnum trilobum

Fig. 310. Viburnum trilobum.

d. Bud-scales often 6, buds divergent, plump


V. rafinesquianum


Young twigs densely stellate-pubescent, becoming glabrate


V. dentatum

1. V. alnifolium Marsh. Hobblebush. Straggling shrub to 3 m. high, with forked branches, often procumbent and rooting, so as to trip pedestrians (whence the common name); twigs scurfy-pubescent. Cool woods, Prince Edward Island to Ontario, south in the mountains to Georgia and Tennessee (Fig. 301 ).

2. V. cassinoides L. Wild Raisin. Upright shrub 1-4 m. high, or sometimes taller; twigs dull, scurfy, elongated, flexuous; buds covered by a single pair of yellow or golden scurfy scales; drupes blue-black, 6-9 mm. long. Thickets, Newfoundland to Ontario, south to Wisconsin, Indiana, and in the mountains to Alabama (Fig. 302 ).

3. V. nudum L. Smooth Witherod. Swamp-Haw. Upright shrub or small tree to 6 m. high, and 1-2 dm. in diameter, with slightly scurfy, rather glossy, elongated, flexuous twigs; buds brown or fuscous. Swamps, Florida to Texas, north to Connecticut and Kentucky; mostly in the coastal plain or Mississippi Valley (Fig. 303 ).

4. V. lentago L. Sheepberry. Nannyberry. A shrub or small tree to 10 m. high, with slender branches, slightly scurfy twigs, and gray buds, the terminal long-pointed; drupes blue-black, 0. 8-1. 5 cm. long, with sweet pulp. Stream-banks, Quebec to Manitoba and South Dakota, south to Georgia, Missouri, and Colorado (Fig. 304 ).

5. V. prunifolium L. Black Haw. Large shrub or small tree to 8 m. high; bark blackish, broken into squarish blocks; branches numerous, rigid, spreading; buds short-pointed, reddish, pubescent; twigs glabrous; drupes blue-black, about 1 cm. long. Thickets, Florida to Texas, north to Connecticut, Michigan, Iowa, and Kansas (Fig. 305 ).

6. V. rafinesquianum Schultes.Downy Arrowwood. (V. pubes-cens of authors, not (Ait.) Pursh). Loose straggling or dense shrub up to 2 m. high; buds with 2 pairs of outer scales; branch-lets glabrous, pale; fruit dark purple, ellipsoid, 7-9 mm. broad. Dry slopes, Quebec to Manitoba, south to Georgia, Kentucky, and Arkansas (Fig. 306 ).

7. V. dentatum L. Southern Arrowwood. (V. scabrellum (T. and G.) Chapm.). Shrub 1-3 m. high, with close gray bark; young branchlets often densely pubescent, sometimes glabrate; drupes blue-black, ellipsoid-ovoid, 5-10 mm. long. Sandy thickets, Florida to Texas, north to Massachusetts, West Virginia, Tennessee, and Missouri (Fig. 307 ).

8. V. recognitum Fernald.Smooth Arrowwood. (V. dentatum of authors, not L.). Shrub 1-3 m. high; branchlets glabrous. Damp thickets, New Brunswick to Ontario, south to South Carolina, Ohio, and Michigan (Fig. 308 ).

9. V. acerifolium L. Mapleleaf Arrowwood. Dockmackie. Upright shrub to 2 m. high,with pubescent twigs; buds stalked,ap-pressed, with 4 scales; drupes ellipsoid, purple-black. Rocky woods, Quebec to Minnesota, south to Georgia and Tennessee (Fig. 309 ).

10. V. trilobum Marsh. Cranberry-tree. (V. opulus L. var. americanum Ait.). A nearly smooth upright shrub, 1-4 m. high, with gray bark; twigs glabrous; buds with 2 connate outer scales; drupe orange to red, subglobose to ellipsoid, juicy. Cool woods, Newfoundland to British Columbia, south to West Virginia, Indiana, Iowa, South Dakota, Wyoming, and Washington (Fig. 310 ).