Hard-wooded deciduous climbers (or trailers), with usually very flaking bark. Stems striate, rounded or somewhat angled; tendrils opposite most of the leaf-scars. Buds subglobose, with 2 scales; terminal bud lacking. Leaf-scars alternate, half-round or crescent-shaped; bundle-traces several in a curved series, indistinct; stipule-scars long and narrow. Panicle-vestiges present in winter, and often the withered fruits also.

Fig. 212. Vitis labrusca

Fig. 212. Vitis labrusca.

Fig. 213. Vitis aestivalis

Fig. 213. Vitis aestivalis.

Fig. 214. Vitis argentifolia

Fig. 214. Vitis argentifolia.

Fig. 215. Vitis riparia

Fig. 215. Vitis riparia.

a. Bark of main stem and branches shreddy and exfoliating, without distinct lenticels;pith with firm diaphragms at the nodes;tendrils, when present, forked

b. Branchlets bearing a tendril or inflorescence at each node

1.

V. labrusca

b. Tendrils (or inflorescences) intermittent, usually lacking at each third node

c. High-climbing lianas

d. Branchlets bluish-glaucous

3.

V. argentifolia

d. Branchlets not glaucous

e. Nodal diaphragms thin, 0. 8-2 mm. thick

4.

V. riparia

e. Nodal diaphragms 2-6 mm. thick

f. Branchlets pubescent

g. Branchlets terete

2.

V. aestivalis

g. Branchlets angled

6.

V. baileyana

f. Branchlets glabrous

5.

V. vulpina

c. Low, bushy and spreading; tendrils absent, or only at tips of fruiting branches

7.

V. rupestris

a. Bark of main stem and branches close, not exfoliating; lenticels abundant;pith continuous, without diaphragms at the nodes; tendrils unbranched

8.

V. rotundifolia

1. V. labrusca L. Northern Fox Grape. High climbing or trailing, often ascending high trees, sometimes forming a stem 3. 5 dm. in diameter; twigs and tendrils densely rusty-puberulent when young, becoming less so in winter; panicle little branched. Thickets and borders of woods, Maine to Michigan,, south to Kentucky, Tennessee, and Georgia (Fig. 212).

2. V. aestivalis Michx. Summer Grape. Pigeon Grape. A vigorous high-climbing vine with medium or short internodes and pubescent twigs; panicle-vestiges compactly branched. Dry woods, Georgia to Texas, north to Massachusetts and Wisconsin (Fig. 213).

Fig. 216. Vitis vulpina

Fig. 216. Vitis vulpina.

Fig. 217. Vitis rupestris

Fig. 217. Vitis rupestris.

Fig. 218. Vitis rotundifolia

Fig. 218. Vitis rotundifolia.

3. V. argentifolia Munson. Silverleaf Grape. (V. aestivalis var. argentifolia (Munson) Fernald; V_. bicolor LeConte). High-climbing or long-trailing with simple tendrils; twigs with a bluish bloom, quite conspicuous when young, becoming less pronounced in winter. Dry woods, New Hampshire to Minnesota, south to Alabama and Kansas (Fig. 214).

4. V. riparia Michx. Riverbank Grape. (V. vulpina of authors, not L.). A strong climbing or trailing vine with glabrous branches; panicle vestiges compact. River-banks, Quebec to Manitoba and Montana, south to Tennessee, Missouri, Texas, and New Mexico (Fig. 215).

5. V. vulpina L. Frost Grape. Winter Grape. (V. cordifolia Michx.). Strong high climber, stem sometimes attaining a diameter of 3. 5 dm. or more; tendrils forked; twigs glabrous; fruits black, becoming sweet after frost, persisting into winter. Bottomlands, Florida to Texas, north to New York, Illinois, Missouri, and Kansas (Fig 216).

6. V. baileyana Munson. Possum Grape. Rather slender, with short internodes and many short side branches; young shoots angled, covered for the first year with woolly hairs. Rich thickets, Virginia to Missouri, south to Alabama and Arkansas.

7. V. rupestris Scheele. Sand Grape. A shrub up to2 m. high, spreading and rather bushy, sometimes slightly climbing; tendrils forked, few and small, or none. Sandy banks, Pennsylvania to Missouri, south to North Carolina, Arkansas, and Texas (Fig. 217).

8. V. rotundifolia Michx. Muscadine. Scuppernong. Trailing or high climbing, glabrous or nearly so throughout; tendrils simple, none opposite each third node. Woods, Florida to Texas, north to Delaware, Indiana, Missouri, and Oklahoma (Fig. 218).