books



previous page: New Book Of Flowers | by Joseph Breck
  
page up: Flora, Herb, Mushroom and Plant Books
  
next page: Class-Book Of Botany USA&Canada | by Alphonso Wood

Woody Plants In Winter | by Earl L. Core, Nelle P. Ammons



A Manual of Common Trees and Shrubs in Winter in the North-eastern United States and South-eastern Canada

TitleWoody Plants In Winter
AuthorEarl L. Core, Nelle P. Ammons
PublisherThe Boxwood Press
Year1958
Copyright1958, The Boxwood Press
AmazonWoody Plants in Winter

By Earl L. Core Department of Biology West Virginia University and Nelle P. Ammons Department of Biology West Virginia University

Woody Plants in WinterWoody Plants In Winter 2

Pacific Grove, California

Woody Plants In Winter 3

Cover photograph by John A. Gibson Professor of Chemistry West Virginia University

-Preface
The Identification Of Woody Plants In Winter has attracted the attention of students of botany for many years. While at first glance trees and shrubs may seem remarkably alike in their dormant conditi...
-Woody Plants In Winter
THE IDENTIFICATION of woody plants in winter has a well-developed technique of its own which, while quite different from the techniques used for the determination of the same plants during the other s...
-Twigs
The terminal portion of a branch of a woody plant may be referred to as a branchlet or twig (Figs. 6, 7). In this work these terms are used to designate, specifically, the growth of the current year a...
-Fruits And Flowers
Fruits. A true fruit is a ripened ovary, bearing one or more ripened ovules, the seeds. The wall of the fruit, developed from the wall of the ovary, is called the pericarp. This pericarp may be fleshy...
-Gymnosperm "Fruits"
The seeds of conifers or cone-bearing plants (pines, spruces, firs, etc.) are borne exposed on the surface of the cone scales (hence Gymnosperm, naked seed) and not enclosed in an ovary, as in the c...
-Descriptions Of Genera And Species Of Woody Plants. Taxus L. (Taxaceae)
SHRUBS with evergreen, linear, mucronate, alternate leaves, the pistillate flower consisting of a single ovule (not in a cone). 1. T. canadensis Marsh. American Yew. A low sprawling shrub, seldom ove...
-Abies Mill. (Pinaceae)
Evergreen trees with leaves linear, flat, scattered, sessile, spreading so as to appear 2-ranked, but in reality spirally arranged, usually persistent in drying (hence the young plants quite satisfact...
-Tsuga (Endl.) Carr. (Pinaceae)
Evergreen trees with slender horizontal or drooping branches and flat narrowly linear alternate leaves, spreading and appearing 2-ranked, attached to very short stalks (sterigmata), quickly falling wh...
-Picea Dietr. (Pinaceae)
Evergreen conical trees, with linear short more or less 4-sided leaves spreading in all directions, joined at the base to short sterigmata, quickly falling when dry. Cones ovoid or oblong, obtuse, pen...
-Larix Mill. (Pinaceae)
Trees with horizontal or ascending branches and small deciduous leaves, mostly clustered at the ends of short stubby branchlets. Cones ovoid or cylindric, small, erect, the scales thin, persistent. ...
-Pinus L. (Pinaceae)
Evergreen trees with 2 kinds of leaves, the primary ones solitary, scalelike, deciduous the first year, the secondary forming the ordinary foliage, narrowly linear, arising in the axils of the primary...
-Taxodium Richard (Taxodiaceae)
Deciduous trees with shreddy bark, often buttressed when large and in very wet places surrounded by large conical knees growing upwards from the roots. Cones small, ellipsoid, with thickened scales....
-Thuja L. (Cupressaceae)
Evergreen trees or shrubs with flattened sprays, the leaves very small, scale-like, appressed, overlapping each other, opposite, 4-ranked. Cones ovoid or oblong, mostly spreading, the 6-10 scales oppo...
-Chamaecyparis Spach (Cupressaceae)
Strong-scented evergreen trees with very small scale-like closely appressed overlapping leaves, 2-ranked branchlets, and subglobose cones with thick peltate scales. Fig. 20. Chamaecyparis thyoides....
-Juniperus L. (Cupressaceae)
Evergreen trees or shrubs with opposite or whorled scalelike sessile leaves, commonly of 2 sorts, those of the young branches linear, often spreading, on the older branches scale-like, closely appress...
-Smilax L. (Liliaceae)
Woody (sometimes herbaceous) plants climbing by tendrils which are borne in pairs on the petiole of the leaves, and may represent modified stipules. Stems terete or angled, usually bearing strong larg...
-Salix L. (Salicaceae)
Deciduous trees and shrubs, with wood of light weight. Tree trunks 1 or 2-4 together, often leaning; shrubs often clumpy and sometimes forming thickets by the growth of underground runners. Twigs most...
-Salix L. (Salicaceae). Continued
10. S. rigid a Muhl, Cordate Willow. Heartleaf Willow. Several-stemmed shrub, 2-4 (-6) m. high; twigs slender to midsized, 1-5 mm. in diameter, yellowish to becoming dark brown, the younger pubescent;...
-Populus L. Deciduous Trees
Bark at first smooth, green, whitish, or orange, becoming gray and fissured on older stems. Twigs moderate, terete or somewhat angled; pith small, 6-angled, continuous or nearly so, brown. Buds modera...
-Myrica L. (Myricaceae)
Aromatic shrubs or small trees, deciduous in cool climates. Twigs rounded or angular, slender, resinous-dotted when young; pith small, somewhat angled, continuous, green. Buds small,solitary, sessile,...
-Comptonia L'Her. (Myricaceae)
Low pubescent deciduous shrub, with fragrant leaves, fruit and twigs. Fruit a conical hard smooth nut, surrounded by 8 long linear bracts persisting as a sort of bur. Fig. 40. Comptonia peregrina. ...
-Juglans L. (Juglandaceae)
Trees with spreading branches, superposed buds, fragrant bark and brown chambered pith. Leaf-scars alternate, shield-shaped or 3-lobed, large; bundle-traces in 3 compound groups; stipule-scars none. T...
-Carya Nutt. (Juglandaceae)
Deciduous trees with close or shaggy bark, terete twigs and continuous pith. Buds large, sometimes stalked, often superposed. Leaf-scars alternate, shield-shaped or 3-lobed, large; bundle-traces numer...
-Corylus L. (Betulaceae)
Deciduous shrubs. Twigs moderate, terete, zigzag; pith continuous, 3-sided, pale or brown. Buds solitary, sessile, ovoid, obtuse, with about 4-6 scales. Leaf-scars alternate, 2-ranked, more or less tr...
-Ostrya Scop. (Betulaceae)
Deciduous trees with scaly bark. Twigs slender, zigzag, terete; pith small, pale green, round or somewhat angled, continuous. Buds usually solitary, sessile, ovoid, oblique, with about 6 spirally arra...
-Carpinus L. (Betulaceae)
Deciduous trees with smooth dark bluish-gray bark, the trunk with irregular ridges extending up and down (muscle-like). Twigs slender, zigzag, terete; pith small, round or 5-sided, continuous, pale....
-Betula L. (Betulaceae)
Aromatic deciduous trees or shrubs. Twigs slender, terete; lenticels elongated horizontally (in this respect resembling cherry); pith minute, flattened, continuous, green. Buds moderate, solitary, fus...
-Alnus B. Ehrh. (Betulaceae)
Deciduous shrubs with gray bark. Twigs somewhat 3-sided; pith small, 3-sided, continuous. Buds sessile or stalked, rather large, solitary, with 3 scales. Leaf-scars alternate, half-round, raised; bund...
-Fagus L. (Fagaceae)
Deciduous trees with smooth gray bark, even on large trunks. Twigs slender, terete, zigzag; pith small, round, continuous. Buds usually solitary, sessile or short-stalked, elongate-fusiform, divergent...
-Castanea Mill. (Fagaceae)
Deciduous shrubs or trees with fissured bark. Twigs moderate, somewhat grooved; pith moderate, continuous, angled. Buds solitary, ovoid, oblique, sessile, with 2 or 3 visible scales, the terminal bud ...
-Quercus L. (Fagaceae)
Mostly deciduous trees or shrubs, the dried leaves often somewhat persistent through the winter (marcescent). Twigs moderate or slender, grooved; pith moderate, continuous, star-shaped in cross sectio...
-Quercus L. (Fagaceae). Continued
10. Q. rubra L. Red Oak. (Q. borealis Michx.). A tree 20-30 m. high, 1-2 m. in diameter, the bark smooth, greenish-brown, on older stems broken into flat-topped ridges separated by narrow fissures; in...
-Ulmus L. (Ulmaceae)
Deciduous trees. Twigs slender, zigzag, terete; pith small, round, continuous. Buds solitary or multiple, ovoid, obliquely sessile, the terminal lacking; scales about 6, 2-ranked. Leaf-scars alternate...
-Celtis L. (Ulmaceae)
Deciduous trees or shrubs. Twigs rounded, slender; pith small, white, round, closely chambered, or continuous except at the nodes. Buds sessile, solitary, ovoid, with about 4 scales. Leaf-scars altern...
-Morus L. (Moraceae)
Deciduous trees with milky sap. Twigs moderate, rounded; pith moderate, round, continuous. Buds sessile, solitary or multiple, ovoid, oblique, with 3-6 scales; end-bud lacking. Leaf-scars alternate, r...
-Broussonetia L'Her. (Moraceae)
Small deciduous trees with milky sap. Twigs moderate, rounded; pith large, white, with a thin green diaphragm at each node. Buds moderate, conical, solitary, sessile, the outer scale longitudinally st...
-Maclura Nutt. (Moraceae)
Deciduous trees with large axillary spines and milky juice. Twigs moderate, rounded, glabrous; pith moderate, round, pale, continuous. Buds small, depressed-globose, sessile, solitary or multiple, wit...
-Pyrularia Michx. (Santalaceae)
Deciduous shrubs parasitic on roots of surrounding plants. Twigs rather large, terete, pubescent when young; pith large, rounded. Buds ovoid, brown. Leaf-scars alternate, rounded; bundle-traces 3; sti...
-Phoradendron Nutt. (Loranthaceae)
Yellowish-green woody parasites on the branches of trees, with jointed, much-branched stems and thick firm persistent leaves. Fruit an ovoid or globose fleshy berry. Fig. 92. Phoradendron flavescen...
-Aristolochia L. (Aristolochiaceae)
Soft-wooded deciduous shrubs, climbing high into trees. Stems terete, green, swollen at the nodes; pith large, rounded, continuous, pale. Buds small, sessile, rounded, superposed on a silky area, with...
-Clematis L. (Ranunculaceae)
Soft-wooded plants, climbing by bending or clasping of the petioles. Stem 5- to 18-angled; pith angled or star-shaped, white, continuous, with firmer diaphragms at the nodes. Buds small, ovoid, or fla...
-Xanthorhiza Marsh. (Ranunculaceae)
Small, nearly unbranched shrubs, lemon-yellow when cut. Twigs terete, moderate, smooth; pith large, round, continuous. Lateral buds solitary, sessile, ovoid-oblong, compressed and flattened against th...
-Berberis L. (Berberidaceae)
Shrubs, usually with branched spines (representing modified leaves) subtending short spurs bearing fascicled foliage leaves. Wood and pith yellow. Twigs grooved, slender; pith relatively large, round,...
-Cocculus Dc. (Menispermaceae)
Deciduous woody climbers. Twigs terete, slender; pith relatively large, continuous, white. Buds small, hairy. Leaf-scars alternate, elliptical; bundle-traces 3 or multiple; stipule-scars lacking. Drup...
-Menispermum L. (Menispermaceae)
Deciduous woody climbers. Twigs rounded,grooved, slender; pith large, continuous, white. Buds small, hairy. Leaf-scars alternate, elliptical, raised, concave; bundle-traces 3 to 7; stipule-scars none....
-Calycocarpum Nutt (Menispermaceae)
Deciduous woody climbers. Twigs terete, slender, hairy or glabrescent; pith large, white, continuous. Leaf-scars alternate, elliptical; bundle-traces 3 or multiplied; stipule-scars none. Drupe with de...
-Magnolia L. (Magnoliaceae)
Trees or shrubs with deciduous or evergreen foliage. Twigs moderate or thick, terete; pith rather large, continuous, round, often with firmer plates at intervals. Buds solitary, ovoid or fusiform, cov...
-Liriodendron L. (Magnoliaceae)
Large deciduous trees. Twigs moderate, terete; pith rounded, pale, continuous, with firmer plates at intervals. Buds solitary or superposed, the lateral small, sessile, the terminal much larger, oblon...
-Calycanthus L. (Calycanthaceae)
Aromatic deciduous shrubs, sparingly branched. Twigs moderate, compressed at the nodes; pith relatively large, somewhat 6-sided, white, continuous. Buds several in a single bud-like aggregate, sessile...
-Asimina Adans, (Annonaceae)
Deciduous shrubs or small trees. Twigs rounded, moderate; pith round, white, continuous, with firmer greenish plates at intervals in the second year's growth, often brown and chambered in old twigs. T...
-Sassafras Nees (Lauraceae)
Aromatic deciduous tree. Twigs green, glabrescent, rounded, moderate; pith moderate, white, continuous. Buds usually solitary, ovoid, sessile, subglobose; scales about 4. Leaf-scars alternate, small, ...
-Lindera Thunb. (Lauraceae)
Aromatic deciduous shrubs. Twigs rounded, slender, green; pith relatively large, round, white, continuous. Buds rather small, superposed; flower-buds collaterally multiple, green, globose, stalked; te...
-Philadelphus L. (Saxifragaceae)
Deciduous shrubs, mostly with exfoliating bark. Twigs more or less lined; pith moderate, rounded, pale, continuous. Buds solitary, sessile with 2 nearly valvate scales, end-bud lacking. Leaf-scars opp...
-Hydrangea L. (Saxifragaceae)
Small soft-wooded deciduous shrubs. Twigs round, moderate to thick; pith relatively large, roundish, continuous, pale. Buds solitary, sessile or short-stalked, globose to oblong, with 4 to 6 scales. L...
-Ribes L. (Saxifragaceae)
Deciduous sometimes spiny shrubs with shredding outer bark. Twigs rounded but decurrently ridged below the nodes, moderate; pith relatively large, pale, round, continuous but becoming porous in age. B...
-Hamamelis L. (Hamamelidaceae)
Deciduous shrubs or small trees. Twigs rounded, zigzag, slender, stellate-tomentose to glabrate; pith small, round, green, continuous. Buds moderate, stalked, oblong, tomentose. Leaf-scars alternate, ...
-Liquidambar L. (Hamamelidaceae)
Conical deciduous trees, with a resinous sap. Twigs moderate, terete and smooth or with variously developed corky ridges; pith angled, continuous or nearly so, white or brownish. Buds solitary, ovoid,...
-Platanus L. (Platanaceae)
Large open deciduous trees with exfoliating bark. Twigs moderate, rounded, glabrous, buff, zigzag; pith moderate, white or brownish, rounded, continuous. Buds solitary, rather large, sessile, conical,...
-Physocarpus Maxim. (Rosaceae)
Loosely branching deciduous shrubs with quickly shredding brown bark. Twigs terete, 5-lined at the nodes, slender; pith large, brownish, round, continuous. Buds small, solitary, sessile, conical-oblon...
-Spiraea L. (Rosaceae)
Low deciduous shrubs, usually with stiff wand-like branches. Twigs round or somewhat angled near the nodes, slender; pith small, round, continuous. Buds small, solitary or collaterally multiple, sessi...
-Pyrus L. (Rosaceae)
Deciduous shrubs or medium-sized trees. Twigs moderate, round or slightly angled, sometimes ending in sharp points; pith somewhat angled, continuous. Buds moderate, solitary, sessile, with about 4 sca...
-Aronia Medic. (Rosaceae)
Deciduous shrubs. Twigs moderate, rounded, glabrous;pith moderate, rounded, continuous. Buds solitary, sessile, oblong, flattened, appressed. Leaf-scars alternate, crescent-shaped or U-shaped; bundle-...
-Sorbus L. (Rosaceae)
Erect-branched small or moderate deciduous trees. Twigs moderate, with prominent lenticels, rounded; pith round, brown, continuous. Buds oblong, the terminal large, the lateral reduced, solitary, sess...
-Amelanchier Medic. (Rosaceae)
Deciduous trees or shrubs. Twigs rather slender, zigzag, terete; pith more or less 5-angled, continuous, pale. Buds moderate, sessile, solitary, elongated, with about 6 often twisted scales. Leaf-scar...
-Crataegus L.Hawthorns. Red Haws (Rosaceae)
Deciduous shrubs or trees, usually with well-developed twig-spines. Twigs moderate or rather slender, terete, pith rather small, continuous, round. Buds solitary or collaterally branched, sessile, rou...
-Potentilla L. (Rosaceae)
Small deciduous shrubs (mostly herbs). Twigs very slender, nearly round, with quickly exfoliating bark; pith small, round, brown. Buds relatively large, solitary, sessile, oblong, with about 4 striate...
-Rubus L. (Rosaceae)
Rather soft-wooded usually deciduous shrubs, mostly armed with prickles, erect,trailing, or scrambling over supports. Shoots moderate, often angled, pith relatively large, round or angled, continuous....
-Rosa L. (Rosaceae)
Deciduous shrubs, mostly prickly, erect, climbing or scrambling. Shoots moderate, rounded; pith relatively large, brown, rounded. Buds small, solitary, sessile, ovoid, with 3 or 4 visible scales. Leaf...
-Prunus L. (Rosaceae)
Deciduous shrubs and trees. Twigs slender or moderate, sub-terete or somewhat angled at the nodes, sometimes sharp-pointed; pith round or angled, pale or brown, continuous. Buds solitary or multiple, ...
-Gymnocladus Lam. (Leguminosae)
Large, deciduous, rough-barked tree. Twigs thick, terete or 3-sided; pith large, round, continuous, salmon-colored. Buds superposed, in raised silky pits; end-bud lacking. Leaf-scars alternate, large,...
-Gleditsia L. (Leguminosae)
Spreading deciduous trees usually armed with large branched spines arising above the axils and persisting on the trunk. Twigs zigzag, roundish; pith rounded, continuous, pale or light pink. Buds glabr...
-Cercis L. (Leguminosae)
Deciduous shrubs or small trees. Twigs moderate, zigzag, subterete; pith roundish, continuous, pale or pinkish. Buds glabrous,the flower-buds superposed and stalked, the leaf-buds sessile, ovoid or ob...
-Cladrastis Raf. (Leguminosae)
Handsome trees with yellow wood, smooth bark, and deciduous leaves. Twigs moderate, terete, somewhat zigzag; pith moderate, round, continuous, pale. Buds sessile, either solitary and scaly or in super...
-Cytisus L. (Leguminosae)
Small shrubs, commonly deciduous. Twigs slender, terete or more usually ribbed or grooved; pith small, roundish, continuous. Buds small, solitary, sessile, round-ovoid, with about 4 scales. Leaf-scars...
-Robinia L. (Leguminosae)
Deciduous trees or shrubs. Twigs often prickly, more or less angled, zigzag; pith round, continuous. Buds small, superposed, covered by the leaf-scar; terminal bud lacking. Leaf-scars alternate, broad...
-Wisteria Nutt. (Leguminosae)
Twining deciduous shrubs. Stems moderate, somewhat fluted; pith moderate, white or brown, round, continuous. Buds moderate, sessile, oblong, acute, nearly surrounded by the outer scale. Leaf-scars alt...
-Zanthoxylum Gmel. (Rutaceae)
Deciduous aromatic shrubs or small tree, armed with prickles often paired at the nodes (as in Robinia) but not believed to be modified stipules. Twigs moderate, rounded; pith continuous, creamy-white....
-Ptelea L. (Rutaceae)
Deciduous shrubs or small trees. Twigs moderate, warty-dotted; pith large, continuous, white. Buds moderate, superposed, silvery-silky, low-conical, sessile, breaking through the leaf-scars; terminal ...
-Ailanthus Desf. (Simaroubaceae)
Smooth-barked loosely-branched deciduous trees. Twigs very thick, somewhat 3-sided, with prominent lenticels; pith large, roundish. Buds solitary, sessile, relatively small; terminal bud lacking. Leaf...
-Rhus L. (Anacardiaceae)
Deciduous shrubs or small trees, or climbing by aerial roots, with milky, sometimes poisonous sap. Twigs round or obscurely 3-sided, slender to quite thick; pith large. Buds moderate or small, solitar...
-Ilex L. (Aquifoliaceae)
Evergreen or deciduous shrubs or small trees. Twigs slender, often developed as spurs with densely crowded leaf-scars; pith small, continuous. Buds small, usually superposed, sessile. Leaf-scars alter...
-Nemopanthus Raf. (Aquifoliaceae)
Deciduous shrub with light-colored bark. Twigs slender, often remaining rather short; pith small, continuous. Buds ovoid, solitary, small, sessile, pointed at the apex, with 2 ciliate scales. Leaf-sca...
-Euonymus L. (Celastraceae)
Shrubs or small trees, sometimes creeping, mostly deciduous. Branchlets 4-sided or 4-lined below the nodes, usually green; pith rounded or angled, greenish, porous or becoming excavated in older stems...
-Pachistima Raf. (Celastraceae)
Low evergreen shrubs. Branchlets very slender, somewhat 4-sided, the bark becoming transversely-checked; pith minute, round, porous, Buds solitary, sessile, ovoid, appressed, small, the lateral with a...
-Celastrus L. (Celastraceae)
Deciduous woody climbers. Stems terete, slender; pith large, continuous, round, white. Buds small, solitary, sessile, subglobose, with about 6 mucronate scales. Leaf-scars alternate, half-elliptical; ...
-Staphylea L. (Staphyleaceae)
Deciduous shrubs or small trees. Twigs moderate, rounded, glabrous; pith rather large, continuous, white. Buds solitary, sessile, ovoid, glabrous; terminal bud usually lacking. Leaf-scars opposite (so...
-Acer L. (Aceraceae)
Deciduous shrubs or trees. Twigs moderate, rounded; pith continuous, pale. Buds moderate, solitary or collaterally multiple, ovoid or conical, sessile or stalked, with 1 or several pairs of exposed sc...
-Aesculus L. (Hippocastanaceae)
Deciduous trees or shrubs. Twigs quite thick; pith large, continuous. Buds, especially the terminal, quite large, solitary, ovoid, sessile, with 6 or more pairs of scales. Leaf-scars opposite, large, ...
-Rhamnus L. (Rhamnaceae)
Deciduous shrubs or small trees. Twigs slender, sometimes spiny; pith continuous, white. Buds moderate, solitary, sessile. Fig. 205. Rhamnus alnifolia. Leaf-scars alternate or sometimes nearly opp...
-Ceanothus L. (Rhamnaceae)
Low deciduous shrubs. Twigs slender, rounded, puberulent; pith large, white, continuous. Buds small, solitary, sessile, ovoid. Leaf-scars alternate, half-elliptical, small; bundle-trace 1, transverse,...
-Ampelopsis Michx. (Vitaceae)
Soft-wooded or somewhat succulent deciduous climbers, bearing tendrils on the upper branches, opposite the leaf-scars. Stems somewhat angled; pith moderate, soon dividing into thin plates. Buds subglo...
-Parthenocissus Planch. (Vitaceae)
Deciduous woody climbers, bearing tendrils opposite the leaf-scars, absent from every third node. Stems terete, moderate or slender; nodes swollen; pith relatively large, continuous. Buds moderate, fr...
-Vitis L. (Vitaceae)
Hard-wooded deciduous climbers (or trailers), with usually very flaking bark. Stems striate, rounded or somewhat angled; tendrils opposite most of the leaf-scars. Buds subglobose, with 2 scales; termi...
-Tilia L. (Tiliaceae)
Large deciduous trees. Twigs moderate, smooth, zigzag; pith continuous,pale. Buds solitary, obliquely sessile, rather large, inequilaterally ovoid, with about 2 green or red scales; terminal bud lacki...
-Hibiscus L. (Malvaceae)
Small deciduous shrubs. Twigs slender,rounded, glabrescent; pith small, continuous, white,bordered with green. Buds not evident, covered by branch vestiges. Leaf-scars alternate, half-round, raised, d...
-Hypericum L. (Hypericaceae)
Small deciduous shrubs (most species herbaceous) with flaking bark. Twigs slender, angled; pith relatively large, somewhat porous, finally excavated in older stems. Buds solitary, sessile, minute. Lea...
-Tamarix L. (Tamaricaceae)
Small trees and shrubs, deciduous by the fall of slender shoots bearing the small juniper-like leaves. Twigs slender, elongated; pith small, rounded, continuous. Buds small, sessile, compressed agains...
-Hudsonia L. (Cistaceae)
Bushy heath-like low shrubs, covered with the small scalelike alternate evergreen pubescent leaves. Twigs very slender, terete; pith minute. Buds scarcely evident. Stipules lacking. 1. H. tomentosa N...
-Dirca L. (Thymeiaeaceae)
Low rounded deciduous shrubs with soft brittle wood but very tough bark (the name leatherbark would be more appropriate). Twigs rounded, glabrous, slender, light brown, or olive, enlarged upwards in...
-Elaeagnus L. (Elaeagnaceae)
Shrubs or small trees, often spiny, stellate-hairy or with silvery or glistening-brown peltate scales; mostly deciduous. Twigs terete, rather slender; pith small, round, continuous. Buds small, solita...
-Shepherdia Nutt. (Elaeagnaceae)
Deciduous shrubs or small trees, often spiny, with glistening fringed silvery or red-brown peltate scales. Twigs subterete, slender; pith small, round, continuous. Buds rather small, solitary or multi...
-Nyssa L. (Nyssaceae)
Tall deciduous trees. Twigs moderate, rounded; pith white, continuous, but with firmer plates at intervals. Buds sessile or slightly stalked, solitary or superposed, ovoid, with about 4 scales; termin...
-Aralia L. (Araliaceae)
Deciduous shrubs or small trees (many species herbaceous), sometimes with cortical prickles. Twigs often thick, rounded; pith large, continuous. Leaf-scars alternate, crescent-shaped, half-encircling ...
-Hedera L. (Araliaceae)
Woody evergreen climbers or trailers, with aerial roots as climbing organs. Stems moderate, terete; pith moderate, spongy. Buds small, conical, solitary, sessile, naked or with about 2 fleshy scales. ...
-Cornus L. (Cornaceae)
Deciduous shrubs or small trees. Twigs slender, round;pith moderate, round, continuous or porous. Buds usually solitary, stalked or sessile, typically oblong. Leaf-scars usually opposite, crescent-sha...
-Clethra L. (Clethraceae)
Deciduous shrubs or small trees with stellate pubescence. Twigs rounded; pith relatively large, continuous, with a network of firmer strands. Buds solitary, sessile, the lateral small, the terminal la...
-Ledum L. (Ericaceae)
Evergreen bog shrubs. Twigs rather slender, rounded; pith small, somewhat 3-sided, spongy, brownish. Buds solitary, sessile, somewhat compressed, small, with about 3 exposed scales; the terminal inflo...
-Rhododendron L. (Ericaceae)
Evergreen or deciduous shrubs or small trees. Twigs terete; pith small, roundish, continuous. Buds solitary, sessile, the upper ovoid with 6 or more ciliate scales and the flower-buds usually much enl...
-Menziesia Sm. (Ericaceae)
Deciduous shrubs with shredding bark. Twigs slender; pith small, continuous. Buds solitary, sessile, ovoid, small, the terminal and flower buds larger. Leaf-scars crowded toward the tips of the branch...
-Kalmia L. (Ericaceae)
Evergreen shrubs or small trees. Twigs moderate or slender; pith small, continuous. Buds minute, solitary, sessile; terminal bud abortive. Leaves alternate (or seemingly opposite or in whorls of 3), e...
-Andromeda L. (Ericaceae)
Evergreen bog shrubs. Twigs slender, somewhat 3-sided; pith small, 3-sided, continuous. Buds small, solitary, sessile, ovoid, subglobose or conical. Leaves alternate, simple, entire. Leaf-scars small,...
-Pieris D. Don (Ericaceae)
Evergreen shrubs or small trees. Twigs slender; pith obscurely 3-sided, continuous. Buds small, globose, the terminal one lacking. Leaves alternate, lanceolate-oblong. Leaf-scars small, half-round; bu...
-Lyonia Nutt. (Ericaceae)
Deciduous or evergreen shrubs. Twigs slender, somewhat 3-sided; pith round. Buds solitary, sessile, oblong, appressed, with 2 visible scales. Leaf-scars alternate, small, half-round; bundle-trace 1; s...
-Leucothoe D. Don (Ericaceae)
Evergreen or deciduous shrubs. Twigs rather slender, sub-terete; pith roundish or somewhat 3-sided, continuous. Buds small, solitary, sessile, globose or ovoid, with 3 or 4 exposed scales, the end-bud...
-Oxydendrum Dc. (Ericaceae)
Small or medium-sized deciduous tree. Twigs slender, zigzag; pith pale, continuous. Buds rather small, conical-globose, solitary, sessile, with about 6 scales; terminal bud lacking. Leaf-scars alterna...
-Chamaedaphne Moench. (Ericaceae)
Evergreen bog shrub. Twigs slender, roundish, at first puberulent and scurfy, then with shredding gray bark, finally smooth and deep red-brown; pith small, roundish, continuous. Buds solitary, sessile...
-Epigaea L. (Ericaceae)
Evergreen prostrate and trailing scarcely shrubby plants with exfoliating bark. Twigs slender; pith moderate, rounded, continuous. Buds solitary or multiple, hairy. Leaves alternate, elliptic-ovate, c...
-Gaultheria L. (Ericaceae)
Evergreen aromatic erect or trailing small shrubs. Twigs moderate or very slender, rounded; pith small. Buds solitary, sessile, ovoid, minute. Leaves alternate, simple, obovate or ovate, entire. Fruit...
-Arctostaphylos Adans. (Ericaceae)
Evergreen shrubs. Twigs slender, somewhat 3-sided or 5-sided; pith small, slightly angled, continuous. Buds solitary, sessile, ovoid, with about 3 exposed scales. Leaves alternate, spatu-late, rather ...
-Gaylussacia H.B.K. (Ericaceae)
Low deciduous or evergreen shrubs. Twigs slender, 3 - sided or roundish; pith small, continuous. Buds solitary, sessile, ovoid, small; terminal bud lacking. Leal-scars alternate, .3 - sided;bundle tra...
-Vaccinium L. (Ericaceae)
Deciduous shrubs, usually under 1 m. tall, Sometimes trailing or arborescent (some species evergreen). Twigs slender, more or less angled; pith small, continuous. Buds small, solitary, sessile, with 2...
-Diospyros L. (Ebenaceae)
Deciduous shrubs or trees. Twigs terete, zigzag, gray-brown; pith moderate, continuous, sometimes becoming porous or chambered. Buds solitary, sessile, deltoid-ovoid, with 2 overlapping scales; termin...
-Halesia Ellis (Styracaceae)
Deciduous shrubs or small trees with shredding bark. Twigs moderate, terete; pith small, round, chambered, white. Buds moderate, superposed, ovoid, with about 4 red scales. Leaf-scars alternate, moder...
-Fraxinus L. (Oleaceae)
Large deciduous trees. Twigs rather thick, stiff, divergent, sometimes square, or at least compressed at the nodes; pith often obscurely angled. Buds sessile, superposed, with 2 or 3 pairs of scales, ...
-Syringa L. (Oleaceae)
Upright deciduous shrubs. Twigs moderate, usually somewhat 4-lined; pith moderate, continuous, roundish, pale. Buds solitary (rarely multiple), sessile, ovoid, with about 4 pairs of scales; end-bud of...
-Forsythia Vahl (Oleaceae)
Loosely branched spreading deciduous shrubs. Twigs somewhat 4-sided, moderate; pith moderate, more or less excavated between the nodes. Buds moderate, becoming multiple, fusiform, sessile, with about ...
-Chionanthus L. (Oleaceae)
Deciduous shrubs or small trees. Twigs moderate, somewhat 4-sided; pith moderate, white, continuous. Buds solitary or superposed, sessile, round-ovoid, small, with about 3 pairs of sharp-pointed keele...
-Ligustrum L. (Oleaceae)
Deciduous shrubs. Twigs slender, rounded; pith moderate, white, continuous. Buds solitary or superposed, sessile, ovoid, small, with 2 or 3 pairs of scales. Leaf-scars opposite, crescent-shaped or ell...
-Solanum L. (Solanaceae)
Deciduous soft-wooded climbers (also herbs). Twigs slender, terete or angled; pith rather large, porous. Buds moderate, solitary, sessile, sub-globose. Leaf-scars alternate, half-round; bundle-trace 1...
-Lycium L. (Solanaceae)
Spreading or scrambling spiny deciduous shrubs. Twigs slender, 5-angled, glabrous, often whitish or with short striations; pith moderate, spongy. Buds small and inconspicuously multiple, subglobose, i...
-Paulownia Sieb. And Zucc. (Scrophulariaceae)
Medium-sized deciduous trees. Twigs thick, compressed at the nodes; pith large, white, round, chambered or excavated between the nodes. Buds often superposed, sessile, hemispheric, with about 4 scales...
-Campsis Lour. (Bignoniaceae)
Straggling deciduous shrubs, usually climbing, often by aerial roots. Twigs moderate, warty; pith pale, continuous, or excavated at the nodes. Buds small, solitary, sessile, triangular,compressed, wit...
-Bignonia L. (Bignoniaceae)
Soft-wooded deciduous or partly evergreen climbers. Stems rounded or somewhat fluted, slender; pith pale, porous, finally excavated. Buds moderate, solitary, sessile, oblong. Leaf-scars opposite, tria...
-Catalpa Scop. (Bignoniaceae)
Small or medium-sized deciduous trees. Twigs thick, round; pith large, round, pale, continuous. Buds solitary, sessile, globose, with about 6 loose scales; terminal bud lacking. Leaf-scars elliptic or...
-Cephalanthus L. (Rubiaceae)
Deciduous shrubs. Twigs slender, round, glabrous; pith small, more or less angled, brown, continuous. Buds solitary, sessile, conical, in depressed areas above the leaf-scars; terminal bud lacking. Le...
-Diervilla Duham. (Caprifoliaceae)
Deciduous shrubs. Twigs terete, moderate, straw-colored or brownish; pith pale, continuous, moderate. Buds solitary or superposed, sessile, oblong, appressed. Leaf-scars opposite or occasionally whorl...
-Lonicera L. (Caprifoliaceae)
Deciduous or partly evergreen shrubs or woody climbers. Twigs rounded, slender; pith moderate, continuous, or excavated between the nodes. Buds solitary or superposed, sessile. Leaf-scars opposite, cr...
-Symphoricarpos Duham. (Caprifoliaceae)
Erect much branched deciduous shrubs. Twigs slender, round, pubescent; pith small, round, brownish, continuous or excavated. Buds small, solitary or multiple, ovoid-oblong, sessile. Leaf-scars opposit...
-Viburnum L. (Caprifoliaceae)
Deciduous shrubs or small trees. Twigs moderate, slender, obscurely 6-sided; pith moderate, continuous. Buds solitary or superposed, mostly stalked, ovoid or oblong. Leaf-scars opposite, crescent-shap...
-Sambucus L. (Caprifoliaceae)
Deciduous soft-wooded shrubs or exceptionally small trees. Twigs more or less angled, thick; lenticels very conspicuous; pith very large, soft, continuous. Buds solitary or multiple; terminal bud most...
-Baccharis L. (Compositae)
Soft-wooded tardily deciduous shrubs with resin-passages. Twigs slender, about 8-ridged, green; pith small, crenulate, pale, continuous. Buds rather small, solitary, sessile, nearly-globose, with abou...
-Bibliography
Bailey, L. H. The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture. The Macmillan Co. New York, 1935. Blakeslee, A. F. and C.D. Jarvis. New England trees in winter. Bull. No. 69, Storrs Agri. Exp. Sta. pp. 307-57...
-Woody Plants Glossary
Acuminate Gradually tapering to a long point. Acute Tapering to a point, but not long-pointed; terminating with a well-defined or sharp angle. Adnate. (Of stipules) Attached wholly or in part to th...
-Woody Plants Glossary. Part 2
Excavated Hollowed out; hollow. Exfoliating Peeling away. Expanded (Of the base of a petiole) Conspicuously broadened, the broadened part not becoming very thin (cf. dilated). Fascicle A close ...
-Woody Plants Glossary. Part 3
Prickly With prickles. Prostrate Lying flat on the ground. Puberulent With very short hairs; minutely pubescent. Pubescent With hairs. Punctate With translucent or colored dots or depressions...









TOP
previous page: New Book Of Flowers | by Joseph Breck
  
page up: Flora, Herb, Mushroom and Plant Books
  
next page: Class-Book Of Botany USA&Canada | by Alphonso Wood